Parameter Reference

This list is auto-generated from the source code and contains the most recent parameter documentation.

Attitude EKF estimator

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
EKF_ATT_V3_Q0 Body angular rate process noise 1e-4
EKF_ATT_V3_Q1 Body angular acceleration process noise 0.08
EKF_ATT_V3_Q2 Acceleration process noise 0.009
EKF_ATT_V3_Q3 Magnet field vector process noise 0.005
EKF_ATT_V4_R0 Gyro measurement noise 0.0008
EKF_ATT_V4_R1 Accel measurement noise 10000.0
EKF_ATT_V4_R2 Mag measurement noise 100.0
ATT_J11 Moment of inertia matrix diagonal entry (1, 1) 0.0018
ATT_J22 Moment of inertia matrix diagonal entry (2, 2) 0.0018
ATT_J33 Moment of inertia matrix diagonal entry (3, 3) 0.0037
ATT_J_EN Moment of inertia enabled in estimator 0

If set to != 0 the moment of inertia will be used in the estimator

Attitude Q estimator

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
ATT_W_ACC Complimentary filter accelerometer weight 0 1 0.2
ATT_W_MAG Complimentary filter magnetometer weight 0 1 0.1
ATT_W_EXT_HDG Complimentary filter external heading weight 0 1 0.1
ATT_W_GYRO_BIAS Complimentary filter gyroscope bias weight 0 1 0.1
ATT_MAG_DECL Magnetic declination, in degrees 0.0

This parameter is not used in normal operation, as the declination is looked up based on the GPS coordinates of the vehicle.

ATT_MAG_DECL_A Automatic GPS based declination compensation 1
ATT_EXT_HDG_M External heading usage mode (from Motion capture/Vision) Set to 1 to use heading estimate from vision. Set to 2 to use heading from motion capture 0 2 0
ATT_ACC_COMP Acceleration compensation based on GPS velocity 1
ATT_BIAS_MAX Gyro bias limit 0 2 0.05
ATT_VIBE_THRESH Threshold (of RMS) to warn about high vibration levels 0.01 10 0.2

Battery Calibration

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
BAT_V_SCALE_IO Scaling factor for battery voltage sensor on PX4IO 1 100000 10000
BAT_CNT_V_VOLT Scaling from ADC counts to volt on the ADC input (battery voltage) -1.0

This is not the battery voltage, but the intermediate ADC voltage. A value of -1 signifies that the board defaults are used, which is highly recommended.

BAT_CNT_V_CURR Scaling from ADC counts to volt on the ADC input (battery current) -1.0

This is not the battery current, but the intermediate ADC voltage. A value of -1 signifies that the board defaults are used, which is highly recommended.

BAT_V_OFFS_CURR Offset in volt as seen by the ADC input of the current sensor 0.0

This offset will be subtracted before calculating the battery current based on the voltage.

BAT_V_DIV Battery voltage divider (V divider) -1.0

This is the divider from battery voltage to 3.3V ADC voltage. If using e.g. Mauch power modules the value from the datasheet can be applied straight here. A value of -1 means to use the board default.

BAT_A_PER_V Battery current per volt (A/V) -1.0

The voltage seen by the 3.3V ADC multiplied by this factor will determine the battery current. A value of -1 means to use the board default.

BAT_SOURCE Battery monitoring source 0 1 0

This parameter controls the source of battery data. The value 'Power Module' means that measurements are expected to come from a power module. If the value is set to 'External' then the system expects to receive mavlink battery status messages.

BAT_V_EMPTY Empty cell voltage (5C load) 3.4

Defines the voltage where a single cell of the battery is considered empty. The voltage should be chosen before the steep dropoff to 2.8V. A typical lithium battery can only be discharged down to 10% before it drops off to a voltage level damaging the cells.

BAT_V_CHARGED Full cell voltage (5C load) 4.05

Defines the voltage where a single cell of the battery is considered full under a mild load. This will never be the nominal voltage of 4.2V

BAT_LOW_THR Low threshold 0.12 0.4 0.15

Sets the threshold when the battery will be reported as low. This has to be higher than the critical threshold.

BAT_CRIT_THR Critical threshold 0.05 0.1 0.07

Sets the threshold when the battery will be reported as critically low. This has to be lower than the low threshold. This threshold commonly will trigger RTL or landing.

BAT_V_LOAD_DROP Voltage drop per cell on full throttle 0.07 0.5 0.3

This implicitely defines the internal resistance to maximum current ratio and assumes linearity. A good value to use is the difference between the 5C and 20-25C load.

BAT_N_CELLS Number of cells 3

Defines the number of cells the attached battery consists of.

BAT_CAPACITY Battery capacity -1.0 100000 -1.0

Defines the capacity of the attached battery.

Camera trigger

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
TRIG_INTERVAL Camera trigger interval 4.0 10000.0 40.0

This parameter sets the time between two consecutive trigger events

TRIG_POLARITY Camera trigger polarity 0 1 0

This parameter sets the polarity of the trigger (0 = active low, 1 = active high )

TRIG_ACT_TIME Camera trigger activation time 0.1 3 0.5

This parameter sets the time the trigger needs to pulled high or low.

TRIG_MODE Camera trigger mode 0 4 0
TRIG_PINS Camera trigger pin 1 123456 12

Selects which pin is used, ranges from 1 to 6 (AUX1-AUX6)

TRIG_DISTANCE Camera trigger distance 0 25.0

Sets the distance at which to trigger the camera.

Circuit Breaker

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
CBRK_SUPPLY_CHK Circuit breaker for power supply check 0 894281 0

Setting this parameter to 894281 will disable the power valid checks in the commander. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_RATE_CTRL Circuit breaker for rate controller output 0 140253 0

Setting this parameter to 140253 will disable the rate controller uORB publication. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_IO_SAFETY Circuit breaker for IO safety 0 22027 0

Setting this parameter to 22027 will disable IO safety. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_AIRSPD_CHK Circuit breaker for airspeed sensor 0 162128 0

Setting this parameter to 162128 will disable the check for an airspeed sensor. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_FLIGHTTERM Circuit breaker for flight termination 0 121212 121212

Setting this parameter to 121212 will disable the flight termination action. –> The IO driver will not do flight termination if requested by the FMU WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_ENGINEFAIL Circuit breaker for engine failure detection 0 284953 284953

Setting this parameter to 284953 will disable the engine failure detection. If the aircraft is in engine failure mode the engine failure flag will be set to healthy WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_GPSFAIL Circuit breaker for GPS failure detection 0 240024 0

Setting this parameter to 240024 will disable the GPS failure detection. If this check is enabled, then the sensor check will fail if the GPS module is missing. It will also check for excessive signal noise on the GPS receiver and warn the user if detected. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_BUZZER Circuit breaker for disabling buzzer 0 782097 0

Setting this parameter to 782097 will disable the buzzer audio notification. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

CBRK_USB_CHK Circuit breaker for USB link check 0 197848 0

Setting this parameter to 197848 will disable the USB connected checks in the commander. WARNING: ENABLING THIS CIRCUIT BREAKER IS AT OWN RISK

Commander

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
COM_DL_LOSS_T Datalink loss time threshold 5 300 10

After this amount of seconds without datalink the data link lost mode triggers

COM_DL_REG_T Datalink regain time threshold 0 3 0

After a data link loss: after this this amount of seconds with a healthy datalink the 'datalink loss' flag is set back to false

COM_EF_THROT Engine Failure Throttle Threshold 0.0 1.0 0.5

Engine failure triggers only above this throttle value

COM_EF_C2T Engine Failure Current/Throttle Threshold 0.0 50.0 5.0

Engine failure triggers only below this current value

COM_EF_TIME Engine Failure Time Threshold 0.0 60.0 10.0

Engine failure triggers only if the throttle threshold and the current to throttle threshold are violated for this time

COM_RC_LOSS_T RC loss time threshold 0 35 0.5

After this amount of seconds without RC connection the rc lost flag is set to true

COM_HOME_H_T Home set horizontal threshold 2 15 5.0

The home position will be set if the estimated positioning accuracy is below the threshold.

COM_HOME_V_T Home set vertical threshold 5 25 10.0

The home position will be set if the estimated positioning accuracy is below the threshold.

COM_AUTOS_PAR Autosaving of params 1

If not equal to zero the commander will automatically save parameters to persistent storage once changed. Default is on, as the interoperability with currently deployed GCS solutions depends on parameters being sticky. Developers can default it to off.

COM_RC_IN_MODE RC control input mode 0 2 0

The default value of 0 requires a valid RC transmitter setup. Setting this to 1 allows joystick control and disables RC input handling and the associated checks. A value of 2 will generate RC control data from manual input received via MAVLink instead of directly forwarding the manual input data.

COM_RC_ARM_HYST RC input arm/disarm command duration 100 1500 1000

The default value of 1000 requires the stick to be held in the arm or disarm position for 1 second.

COM_DISARM_LAND Time-out for auto disarm after landing 0 20 0

A non-zero, positive value specifies the time-out period in seconds after which the vehicle will be automatically disarmed in case a landing situation has been detected during this period. A value of zero means that automatic disarming is disabled.

COM_ARM_WO_GPS Allow arming without GPS 0 1 1

The default allows to arm the vehicle without GPS signal.

COM_LOW_BAT_ACT Battery failsafe mode 0

Action the system takes on low battery. Defaults to off

COM_OF_LOSS_T Time-out to wait when offboard connection is lost before triggering offboard lost action. See COM_OBL_ACT and COM_OBL_RC_ACT to configure action 0 60 0.0
Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
NAV_DLL_CH_T Comms hold wait time 0.0 3600.0 120.0

The amount of time in seconds the system should wait at the comms hold waypoint

NAV_DLL_CH_LAT Comms hold Lat -900000000 900000000 -266072120

Latitude of comms hold waypoint

NAV_DLL_CH_LON Comms hold Lon -1800000000 1800000000 1518453890

Longitude of comms hold waypoint

NAV_DLL_CH_ALT Comms hold alt -50 30000 600.0

Altitude of comms hold waypoint

NAV_DLL_AH_T Airfield home wait time 0.0 3600.0 120.0

The amount of time in seconds the system should wait at the airfield home waypoint

NAV_DLL_N Number of allowed Datalink timeouts 0 1000 2

After more than this number of data link timeouts the aircraft returns home directly

NAV_DLL_CHSK Skip comms hold wp 0

If set to 1 the system will skip the comms hold wp on data link loss and will directly fly to airfield home

NAV_AH_LAT Airfield home Lat -900000000 900000000 -265847810

Latitude of airfield home waypoint

NAV_AH_LON Airfield home Lon -1800000000 1800000000 1518423250

Longitude of airfield home waypoint

NAV_AH_ALT Airfield home alt -50 600.0

Altitude of airfield home waypoint

EKF2

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
EKF2_MAG_DELAY Magnetometer measurement delay relative to IMU measurements 0 300 0
EKF2_BARO_DELAY Barometer measurement delay relative to IMU measurements 0 300 0
EKF2_GPS_DELAY GPS measurement delay relative to IMU measurements 0 300 200
EKF2_OF_DELAY Optical flow measurement delay relative to IMU measurements Assumes measurement is timestamped at trailing edge of integration period 0 300 5
EKF2_RNG_DELAY Range finder measurement delay relative to IMU measurements 0 300 5
EKF2_ASP_DELAY Airspeed measurement delay relative to IMU measurements 0 300 200
EKF2_EV_DELAY Vision Position Estimator delay relative to IMU measurements 0 300 175
EKF2_GPS_CHECK Integer bitmask controlling GPS checks 0 511 21

Set bits to 1 to enable checks. Checks enabled by the following bit positions 0 : Minimum required sat count set by EKF2_REQ_NSATS 1 : Minimum required GDoP set by EKF2_REQ_GDOP 2 : Maximum allowed horizontal position error set by EKF2_REQ_EPH 3 : Maximum allowed vertical position error set by EKF2_REQ_EPV 4 : Maximum allowed speed error set by EKF2_REQ_SACC 5 : Maximum allowed horizontal position rate set by EKF2_REQ_HDRIFT. This check can only be used if the vehciel is stationary during alignment. 6 : Maximum allowed vertical position rate set by EKF2_REQ_VDRIFT. This check can only be used if the vehciel is stationary during alignment. 7 : Maximum allowed horizontal speed set by EKF2_REQ_HDRIFT. This check can only be used if the vehciel is stationary during alignment. 8 : Maximum allowed vertical velocity discrepancy set by EKF2_REQ_VDRIFT

EKF2_REQ_EPH Required EPH to use GPS 2 100 5.0
EKF2_REQ_EPV Required EPV to use GPS 2 100 8.0
EKF2_REQ_SACC Required speed accuracy to use GPS 0.5 5.0 1.0
EKF2_REQ_NSATS Required satellite count to use GPS 4 12 6
EKF2_REQ_GDOP Required GDoP to use GPS 1.5 5.0 2.5
EKF2_REQ_HDRIFT Maximum horizontal drift speed to use GPS 0.1 1.0 0.3
EKF2_REQ_VDRIFT Maximum vertical drift speed to use GPS 0.1 1.5 0.5
EKF2_GYR_NOISE Rate gyro noise for covariance prediction 0.0001 0.1 1.5e-2
EKF2_ACC_NOISE Accelerometer noise for covariance prediction 0.01 1.0 3.5e-1
EKF2_GYR_B_NOISE Process noise for IMU rate gyro bias prediction 0.0 0.01 1.0e-3
EKF2_ACC_B_NOISE Process noise for IMU accelerometer bias prediction 0.0 0.01 3.0e-3
EKF2_MAG_B_NOISE Process noise for body magnetic field prediction 0.0 0.1 1.0e-4
EKF2_MAG_E_NOISE Process noise for earth magnetic field prediction 0.0 0.1 1.0e-3
EKF2_WIND_NOISE Process noise for wind velocity prediction 0.0 1.0 1.0e-1
EKF2_GPS_V_NOISE Measurement noise for gps horizontal velocity 0.01 5.0 0.5
EKF2_GPS_P_NOISE Measurement noise for gps position 0.01 10.0 0.5
EKF2_NOAID_NOISE Measurement noise for non-aiding position hold 0.5 50.0 10.0
EKF2_BARO_NOISE Measurement noise for barometric altitude 0.01 15.0 2.0
EKF2_HEAD_NOISE Measurement noise for magnetic heading fusion 0.01 1.0 0.3
EKF2_MAG_NOISE Measurement noise for magnetometer 3-axis fusion 0.001 1.0 5.0e-2
EKF2_EAS_NOISE Measurement noise for airspeed fusion 0.5 5.0 1.4
EKF2_MAG_DECL Magnetic declination 0
EKF2_HDG_GATE Gate size for magnetic heading fusion 1.0 2.6
EKF2_MAG_GATE Gate size for magnetometer XYZ component fusion 1.0 3.0
EKF2_DECL_TYPE Integer bitmask controlling handling of magnetic declination 0 7 7

Set bits in the following positions to enable functions. 0 : Set to true to use the declination from the geo_lookup library when the GPS position becomes available, set to false to always use the EKF2_MAG_DECL value. 1 : Set to true to save the EKF2_MAG_DECL parameter to the value returned by the EKF when the vehicle disarms. 2 : Set to true to always use the declination as an observaton when 3-axis magnetometer fusion is being used.

EKF2_MAG_TYPE Type of magnetometer fusion 0

Integer controlling the type of magnetometer fusion used - magnetic heading or 3-axis magnetometer. If set to automatic: heading fusion on-ground and 3-axis fusion in-flight

EKF2_BARO_GATE Gate size for barometric height fusion 1.0 5.0
EKF2_GPS_P_GATE Gate size for GPS horizontal position fusion 1.0 5.0
EKF2_GPS_V_GATE Gate size for GPS velocity fusion 1.0 5.0
EKF2_TAS_GATE Gate size for TAS fusion 1.0 3.0
EKF2_REC_RPL Replay mode 0

A value of 1 indicates that the ekf2 module will publish replay messages for logging.

EKF2_AID_MASK Integer bitmask controlling data fusion and aiding methods 0 28 1

Set bits in the following positions to enable: 0 : Set to true to use GPS data if available 1 : Set to true to use optical flow data if available 2 : Set to true to inhibit IMU bias estimation 3 : Set to true to enable vision position fusion 4 : Set to true to enable vision yaw fusion *

EKF2_HGT_MODE Determines the primary source of height data used by the EKF 0

The range sensor option should only be used when for operation over a flat surface as the local NED origin will move up and down with ground level.

EKF2_RNG_NOISE Measurement noise for range finder fusion 0.01 0.1
EKF2_RNG_GATE Gate size for range finder fusion 1.0 5.0
EKF2_MIN_RNG Minimum valid range for the range finder 0.01 0.1
EKF2_EVP_NOISE Measurement noise for vision position observations used when the vision system does not supply error estimates 0.01 0.05
EKF2_EVA_NOISE Measurement noise for vision angle observations used when the vision system does not supply error estimates 0.01 0.05
EKF2_EV_GATE Gate size for vision estimate fusion 1.0 5.0
EKF2_MIN_EV Minimum valid range for the vision estimate 0.01 0.01
EKF2_OF_N_MIN Measurement noise for the optical flow sensor when it's reported quality metric is at the maximum 0.05 0.15
EKF2_OF_N_MAX Measurement noise for the optical flow sensor 0.05 0.5

(when it's reported quality metric is at the minimum set by EKF2_OF_QMIN). The following condition must be met: EKF2_OF_N_MAXN >= EKF2_OF_N_MIN

EKF2_OF_QMIN Optical Flow data will only be used if the sensor reports a quality metric >= EKF2_OF_QMIN 0 255 1
EKF2_OF_GATE Gate size for optical flow fusion 1.0 3.0
EKF2_OF_RMAX Optical Flow data will not fused if the magnitude of the flow rate > EKF2_OF_RMAX 1.0 2.5
EKF2_TERR_NOISE Terrain altitude process noise - accounts for instability in vehicle height estimate 0.5 5.0
EKF2_TERR_GRAD Magnitude of terrain gradient 0.0 0.5
EKF2_IMU_POS_X X position of IMU in body frame 0.0
EKF2_IMU_POS_Y Y position of IMU in body frame 0.0
EKF2_IMU_POS_Z Z position of IMU in body frame 0.0
EKF2_GPS_POS_X X position of GPS antenna in body frame 0.0
EKF2_GPS_POS_Y Y position of GPS antenna in body frame 0.0
EKF2_GPS_POS_Z Z position of GPS antenna in body frame 0.0
EKF2_RNG_POS_X X position of range finder origin in body frame 0.0
EKF2_RNG_POS_Y Y position of range finder origin in body frame 0.0
EKF2_RNG_POS_Z Z position of range finder origin in body frame 0.0
EKF2_OF_POS_X X position of optical flow focal point in body frame 0.0
EKF2_OF_POS_Y Y position of optical flow focal point in body frame 0.0
EKF2_OF_POS_Z Z position of optical flow focal point in body frame 0.0
EKF2_EV_POS_X X position of VI sensor focal point in body frame 0.0
EKF2_EV_POS_Y Y position of VI sensor focal point in body frame 0.0
EKF2_EV_POS_Z Z position of VI sensor focal point in body frame 0.0
EKF2_ARSP_THR Airspeed fusion threshold. A value of zero will deactivate airspeed fusion. Any other positive value will determine the minimum airspeed which will still be fused 0.0 0.0
EKF2_TAU_VEL Time constant of the velocity output prediction and smoothing filter 1.0 0.5
EKF2_TAU_POS Time constant of the position output prediction and smoothing filter. Controls how tightly the output track the EKF states 0.1 1.0 0.25
EKF2_GBIAS_INIT 1-sigma IMU gyro switch-on bias 0.0 0.2 0.1
EKF2_ABIAS_INIT 1-sigma IMU accelerometer switch-on bias 0.0 0.5 0.2
EKF2_ANGERR_INIT 1-sigma tilt angle uncertainty after gravity vector alignment 0.0 0.5 0.1

FW Attitude Control

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
FW_R_TC Attitude Roll Time Constant 0.4 1.0 0.4

This defines the latency between a roll step input and the achieved setpoint (inverse to a P gain). Half a second is a good start value and fits for most average systems. Smaller systems may require smaller values, but as this will wear out servos faster, the value should only be decreased as needed.

FW_P_TC Attitude Pitch Time Constant 0.2 1.0 0.4

This defines the latency between a pitch step input and the achieved setpoint (inverse to a P gain). Half a second is a good start value and fits for most average systems. Smaller systems may require smaller values, but as this will wear out servos faster, the value should only be decreased as needed.

FW_PR_P Pitch rate proportional gain 0.005 1.0 0.08

This defines how much the elevator input will be commanded depending on the current body angular rate error.

FW_PR_I Pitch rate integrator gain 0.005 0.5 0.02

This gain defines how much control response will result out of a steady state error. It trims any constant error.

FW_P_RMAX_POS Maximum positive / up pitch rate 0.0 90.0 60.0

This limits the maximum pitch up angular rate the controller will output (in degrees per second). Setting a value of zero disables the limit.

FW_P_RMAX_NEG Maximum negative / down pitch rate 0.0 90.0 60.0

This limits the maximum pitch down up angular rate the controller will output (in degrees per second). Setting a value of zero disables the limit.

FW_PR_IMAX Pitch rate integrator limit 0.0 1.0 0.4

The portion of the integrator part in the control surface deflection is limited to this value

FW_RR_P Roll rate proportional Gain 0.005 1.0 0.05

This defines how much the aileron input will be commanded depending on the current body angular rate error.

FW_RR_I Roll rate integrator Gain 0.005 0.2 0.01

This gain defines how much control response will result out of a steady state error. It trims any constant error.

FW_RR_IMAX Roll Integrator Anti-Windup 0.0 1.0 0.2

The portion of the integrator part in the control surface deflection is limited to this value.

FW_R_RMAX Maximum Roll Rate 0.0 90.0 70.0

This limits the maximum roll rate the controller will output (in degrees per second). Setting a value of zero disables the limit.

FW_YR_P Yaw rate proportional gain 0.005 1.0 0.05

This defines how much the rudder input will be commanded depending on the current body angular rate error.

FW_YR_I Yaw rate integrator gain 0.0 50.0 0.0

This gain defines how much control response will result out of a steady state error. It trims any constant error.

FW_YR_IMAX Yaw rate integrator limit 0.0 1.0 0.2

The portion of the integrator part in the control surface deflection is limited to this value

FW_Y_RMAX Maximum Yaw Rate 0.0 90.0 0.0

This limits the maximum yaw rate the controller will output (in degrees per second). Setting a value of zero disables the limit.

FW_WR_P Wheel steering rate proportional gain 0.005 1.0 0.5

This defines how much the wheel steering input will be commanded depending on the current body angular rate error.

FW_WR_I Wheel steering rate integrator gain 0.005 0.5 0.1

This gain defines how much control response will result out of a steady state error. It trims any constant error.

FW_WR_IMAX Wheel steering rate integrator limit 0.0 1.0 1.0

The portion of the integrator part in the control surface deflection is limited to this value

FW_W_RMAX Maximum wheel steering rate 0.0 90.0 0.0

This limits the maximum wheel steering rate the controller will output (in degrees per second). Setting a value of zero disables the limit.

FW_RR_FF Roll rate feed forward 0.0 10.0 0.5

Direct feed forward from rate setpoint to control surface output. Use this to obtain a tigher response of the controller without introducing noise amplification.

FW_PR_FF Pitch rate feed forward 0.0 10.0 0.5

Direct feed forward from rate setpoint to control surface output

FW_YR_FF Yaw rate feed forward 0.0 10.0 0.3

Direct feed forward from rate setpoint to control surface output

FW_WR_FF Wheel steering rate feed forward 0.0 10.0 0.2

Direct feed forward from rate setpoint to control surface output

FW_YCO_VMIN Minimal speed for yaw coordination 0.0 1000.0 1000.0

For airspeeds above this value, the yaw rate is calculated for a coordinated turn. Set to a very high value to disable.

FW_YCO_METHOD Method used for yaw coordination 0 1 0

The param value sets the method used to calculate the yaw rate 0: open-loop zero lateral acceleration based on kinematic constraints 1: closed-loop: try to reduce lateral acceleration to 0 by measuring the acceleration

FW_RSP_OFF Roll Setpoint Offset -90.0 90.0 0.0

An airframe specific offset of the roll setpoint in degrees, the value is added to the roll setpoint and should correspond to the typical cruise speed of the airframe.

FW_PSP_OFF Pitch Setpoint Offset -90.0 90.0 0.0

An airframe specific offset of the pitch setpoint in degrees, the value is added to the pitch setpoint and should correspond to the typical cruise speed of the airframe.

FW_MAN_R_MAX Max Manual Roll 0.0 90.0 45.0

Max roll for manual control in attitude stabilized mode

FW_MAN_P_MAX Max Manual Pitch 0.0 90.0 45.0

Max pitch for manual control in attitude stabilized mode

FW_FLAPS_SCL Scale factor for flaps 0.0 1.0 1.0
FW_FLAPERON_SCL Scale factor for flaperons 0.0 1.0 0.0
FW_ARSP_MODE Airspeed mode 0 2 0

The param value sets the method used to publish the control state airspeed. For small wings or VTOL without airspeed sensor this parameter can be used to enable flying without an airspeed reading

FW L1 Control

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
FW_L1_PERIOD L1 period 12.0 50.0 20.0

This is the L1 distance and defines the tracking point ahead of the aircraft its following. A value of 18-25 meters works for most aircraft. Shorten slowly during tuning until response is sharp without oscillation.

FW_L1_DAMPING L1 damping 0.6 0.9 0.75

Damping factor for L1 control.

FW_THR_CRUISE Cruise throttle 0.0 1.0 0.6

This is the throttle setting required to achieve the desired cruise speed. Most airframes have a value of 0.5-0.7.

FW_THR_SLEW_MAX Throttle max slew rate 0.0 1.0 0.0

Maximum slew rate for the commanded throttle

FW_P_LIM_MIN Negative pitch limit -60.0 0.0 -45.0

The minimum negative pitch the controller will output.

FW_P_LIM_MAX Positive pitch limit 0.0 60.0 45.0

The maximum positive pitch the controller will output.

FW_R_LIM Controller roll limit 35.0 65.0 50.0

The maximum roll the controller will output.

FW_THR_MAX Throttle limit max 0.0 1.0 1.0

This is the maximum throttle % that can be used by the controller. For overpowered aircraft, this should be reduced to a value that provides sufficient thrust to climb at the maximum pitch angle PTCH_MAX.

FW_THR_MIN Throttle limit min 0.0 1.0 0.0

This is the minimum throttle % that can be used by the controller. For electric aircraft this will normally be set to zero, but can be set to a small non-zero value if a folding prop is fitted to prevent the prop from folding and unfolding repeatedly in-flight or to provide some aerodynamic drag from a turning prop to improve the descent rate. For aircraft with internal combustion engine this parameter should be set for desired idle rpm.

FW_THR_IDLE Idle throttle 0.0 0.4 0.15

This is the minimum throttle while on the ground For aircraft with internal combustion engine this parameter should be set above desired idle rpm.

FW_THR_LND_MAX Throttle limit value before flare 0.0 1.0 1.0

This throttle value will be set as throttle limit at FW_LND_TLALT, before aircraft will flare.

FW_CLMBOUT_DIFF Climbout Altitude difference 0.0 150.0 10.0

If the altitude error exceeds this parameter, the system will climb out with maximum throttle and minimum airspeed until it is closer than this distance to the desired altitude. Mostly used for takeoff waypoints / modes. Set to 0 to disable climbout mode (not recommended).

FW_LND_ANG Landing slope angle 1.0 15.0 5.0
FW_LND_HVIRT 1.0 15.0 10.0
FW_LND_FLALT Landing flare altitude (relative to landing altitude) 0.0 25.0 8.0
FW_LND_TLALT Landing throttle limit altitude (relative landing altitude) -1.0 30.0 -1.0

Default of -1.0 lets the system default to applying throttle limiting at 2/3 of the flare altitude.

FW_LND_HHDIST Landing heading hold horizontal distance 0 30.0 15.0
FW_LND_USETER Use terrain estimate during landing 0
FW_LND_FL_PMIN Flare, minimum pitch 0 15.0 2.5

Minimum pitch during flare, a positive sign means nose up Applied once FW_LND_TLALT is reached

FW_LND_FL_PMAX Flare, maximum pitch 0 45.0 15.0

Maximum pitch during flare, a positive sign means nose up Applied once FW_LND_TLALT is reached

FW_LND_AIRSPD_SC Min. airspeed scaling factor for landing 1.0 1.5 1.3

Multiplying this factor with the minimum airspeed of the plane gives the target airspeed the landing approach. FW_AIRSPD_MIN * FW_LND_AIRSPD_SC

FW TECS

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
FW_AIRSPD_MIN Minimum Airspeed 0.0 40 10.0

If the airspeed falls below this value, the TECS controller will try to increase airspeed more aggressively.

FW_AIRSPD_MAX Maximum Airspeed 0.0 40 20.0

If the airspeed is above this value, the TECS controller will try to decrease airspeed more aggressively.

FW_T_CLMB_MAX Maximum climb rate 1.0 15.0 5.0

This is the best climb rate that the aircraft can achieve with the throttle set to THR_MAX and the airspeed set to the default value. For electric aircraft make sure this number can be achieved towards the end of flight when the battery voltage has reduced. The setting of this parameter can be checked by commanding a positive altitude change of 100m in loiter, RTL or guided mode. If the throttle required to climb is close to THR_MAX and the aircraft is maintaining airspeed, then this parameter is set correctly. If the airspeed starts to reduce, then the parameter is set to high, and if the throttle demand required to climb and maintain speed is noticeably less than FW_THR_MAX, then either FW_T_CLMB_MAX should be increased or FW_THR_MAX reduced.

FW_T_SINK_MIN Minimum descent rate 1.0 5.0 2.0

This is the sink rate of the aircraft with the throttle set to THR_MIN and flown at the same airspeed as used to measure FW_T_CLMB_MAX.

FW_T_SINK_MAX Maximum descent rate 2.0 15.0 5.0

This sets the maximum descent rate that the controller will use. If this value is too large, the aircraft can over-speed on descent. This should be set to a value that can be achieved without exceeding the lower pitch angle limit and without over-speeding the aircraft.

FW_T_TIME_CONST TECS time constant 1.0 10.0 5.0

This is the time constant of the TECS control algorithm (in seconds). Smaller values make it faster to respond, larger values make it slower to respond.

FW_T_THRO_CONST TECS Throttle time constant 1.0 10.0 8.0

This is the time constant of the TECS throttle control algorithm (in seconds). Smaller values make it faster to respond, larger values make it slower to respond.

FW_T_THR_DAMP Throttle damping factor 0.0 2.0 0.5

This is the damping gain for the throttle demand loop. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height.

FW_T_INTEG_GAIN Integrator gain 0.0 2.0 0.1

This is the integrator gain on the control loop. Increasing this gain increases the speed at which speed and height offsets are trimmed out, but reduces damping and increases overshoot.

FW_T_VERT_ACC Maximum vertical acceleration 1.0 10.0 7.0

This is the maximum vertical acceleration (in m/s/s) either up or down that the controller will use to correct speed or height errors. The default value of 7 m/s/s (equivalent to +- 0.7 g) allows for reasonably aggressive pitch changes if required to recover from under-speed conditions.

FW_T_HGT_OMEGA Complementary filter “omega” parameter for height 1.0 10.0 3.0

This is the cross-over frequency (in radians/second) of the complementary filter used to fuse vertical acceleration and barometric height to obtain an estimate of height rate and height. Increasing this frequency weights the solution more towards use of the barometer, whilst reducing it weights the solution more towards use of the accelerometer data.

FW_T_SPD_OMEGA Complementary filter “omega” parameter for speed 1.0 10.0 2.0

This is the cross-over frequency (in radians/second) of the complementary filter used to fuse longitudinal acceleration and airspeed to obtain an improved airspeed estimate. Increasing this frequency weights the solution more towards use of the airspeed sensor, whilst reducing it weights the solution more towards use of the accelerometer data.

FW_T_RLL2THR Roll → Throttle feedforward 0.0 20.0 15.0

Increasing this gain turn increases the amount of throttle that will be used to compensate for the additional drag created by turning. Ideally this should be set to approximately 10 x the extra sink rate in m/s created by a 45 degree bank turn. Increase this gain if the aircraft initially loses energy in turns and reduce if the aircraft initially gains energy in turns. Efficient high aspect-ratio aircraft (eg powered sailplanes) can use a lower value, whereas inefficient low aspect-ratio models (eg delta wings) can use a higher value.

FW_T_SPDWEIGHT Speed ←→ Altitude priority 0.0 2.0 1.0

This parameter adjusts the amount of weighting that the pitch control applies to speed vs height errors. Setting it to 0.0 will cause the pitch control to control height and ignore speed errors. This will normally improve height accuracy but give larger airspeed errors. Setting it to 2.0 will cause the pitch control loop to control speed and ignore height errors. This will normally reduce airspeed errors, but give larger height errors. The default value of 1.0 allows the pitch control to simultaneously control height and speed. Note to Glider Pilots - set this parameter to 2.0 (The glider will adjust its pitch angle to maintain airspeed, ignoring changes in height).

FW_T_PTCH_DAMP Pitch damping factor 0.0 2.0 0.0

This is the damping gain for the pitch demand loop. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in height. The default value of 0.0 will work well provided the pitch to servo controller has been tuned properly.

FW_T_HRATE_P Height rate P factor 0.0 2.0 0.05
FW_T_HRATE_FF Height rate FF factor 0.0 2.0 0.0
FW_T_SRATE_P Speed rate P factor 0.0 2.0 0.02
FW_AIRSPD_TRIM Cruise Airspeed 0.0 40 15.0

The fixed wing controller tries to fly at this airspeed.

Follow target

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
NAV_MIN_FT_HT Minimum follow target altitude 8.0 8.0

The minimum height in meters relative to home for following a target

NAV_FT_DST Distance to follow target from 1.0 8.0

The distance in meters to follow the target at

NAV_FT_FS Side to follow target from 0 3 1

The side to follow the target from (front right = 0, behind = 1, front = 2, front left = 3)

NAV_FT_RS Dynamic filtering algorithm responsiveness to target movement lower numbers increase the responsiveness to changing long lat but also ignore less noise 0.0 1.0 0.5

GPS

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
GPS_DUMP_COMM Dump GPS communication to a file 0 1 0

If this is set to 1, all GPS communication data will be written to a file. Two files will be created, for reading and writing. All communication from startup until device disarm will be dumped.

GPS Failure Navigation

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
NAV_GPSF_LT Loiter time 0.0 3600.0 30.0

The amount of time in seconds the system should do open loop loiter and wait for gps recovery before it goes into flight termination.

NAV_GPSF_R Open loop loiter roll 0.0 30.0 15.0

Roll in degrees during the open loop loiter

NAV_GPSF_P Open loop loiter pitch -30.0 30.0 0.0

Pitch in degrees during the open loop loiter

NAV_GPSF_TR Open loop loiter thrust 0.0 1.0 0.7

Thrust value which is set during the open loop loiter

Geofence

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
GF_ACTION Geofence violation action 0 4 1

Note: Setting this value to 4 enables flight termination, which will kill the vehicle on violation of the fence. Due to the inherent danger of this, this function is disabled using a software circuit breaker, which needs to be reset to 0 to really shut down the system.

GF_ALTMODE Geofence altitude mode 0 1 0

Select which altitude reference should be used 0 = WGS84, 1 = AMSL

GF_SOURCE Geofence source 0 1 0

Select which position source should be used. Selecting GPS instead of global position makes sure that there is no dependence on the position estimator 0 = global position, 1 = GPS

GF_COUNT Geofence counter limit -1 10 -1

Set how many subsequent position measurements outside of the fence are needed before geofence violation is triggered

GF_MAX_HOR_DIST Max horizontal distance in meters -1 5000 -1

Set to > 0 to activate a geofence action if horizontal distance to home exceeds this value.

GF_MAX_VER_DIST Max vertical distance in meters -1 -1

Set to > 0 to activate a geofence action if vertical distance to home exceeds this value.

Gimbal

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
GMB_USE_MNT Consider mount operation mode 0

If set to 1, mount mode will be enforced.

GMB_AUX_MNT_CHN Auxiliary switch to set mount operation mode 0 3 0

Set to 0 to disable manual mode control. If set to an auxiliary switch: Switch off means the gimbal is put into safe/locked position. Switch on means the gimbal can move freely, and landing gear will be retracted if applicable.

Land Detector

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
LNDMC_Z_VEL_MAX Multicopter max climb rate 0.70

Maximum vertical velocity allowed in the landed state (m/s up and down)

LNDMC_XY_VEL_MAX Multicopter max horizontal velocity 1.50

Maximum horizontal velocity allowed in the landed state (m/s)

LNDMC_ROT_MAX Multicopter max rotation 20.0

Maximum allowed angular velocity around each axis allowed in the landed state.

LNDMC_FFALL_THR Multicopter specific force threshold 0.1 10 2.0

Multicopter threshold on the specific force measured by accelerometers in m/s^2 for free-fall detection

LNDMC_FFALL_TTRI Multicopter free-fall trigger time 0.02 5 0.3

Seconds (decimal) that freefall conditions have to met before triggering a freefall. Minimal value is limited by LAND_DETECTOR_UPDATE_RATE=50Hz in landDetector.h

LNDFW_VEL_XY_MAX Fixedwing max horizontal velocity 0.5 10 5.0

Maximum horizontal velocity allowed in the landed state (m/s)

LNDFW_VEL_Z_MAX Fixedwing max climb rate 5 20 10.0

Maximum vertical velocity allowed in the landed state (m/s up and down)

LNDFW_VELI_MAX Fixedwing max short-term velocity 2 10 4.0

Maximum velocity integral in flight direction allowed in the landed state (m/s)

LNDFW_AIRSPD_MAX Airspeed max 4 20 8.00

Maximum airspeed allowed in the landed state (m/s)

Launch detection

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
LAUN_ALL_ON Launch detection 0
LAUN_CAT_A Catapult accelerometer threshold 0 30.0

LAUN_CAT_A for LAUN_CAT_T serves as threshold to trigger launch detection.

LAUN_CAT_T Catapult time threshold 0.0 5.0 0.05

LAUN_CAT_A for LAUN_CAT_T serves as threshold to trigger launch detection.

LAUN_CAT_MDEL Motor delay 0.0 10.0 0.0

Delay between starting attitude control and powering up the throttle (giving throttle control to the controller) Before this timespan is up the throttle will be set to FW_THR_IDLE, set to 0 to deactivate

LAUN_CAT_PMAX Maximum pitch before the throttle is powered up (during motor delay phase) 0.0 45.0 30.0

This is an extra limit for the maximum pitch which is imposed in the phase before the throttle turns on. This allows to limit the maximum pitch angle during a bungee launch (make the launch less steep).

Local Position Estimator

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
LPE_INTEGRATE Accelerometer integration for prediction 1
LPE_FLW_OFF_Z Optical flow z offset from center -1 1 0.0
LPE_FLW_XY Optical flow xy standard deviation 0.01 1 0.01
LPE_FLW_QMIN Optical flow minimum quality threshold 0 255 75
LPE_SNR_Z Sonar z standard deviation 0.01 1 0.05
LPE_SNR_OFF_Z Sonar z offset from center of vehicle +down -1 1 0.00
LPE_LDR_Z Lidar z standard deviation 0.01 1 0.03
LPE_LDR_OFF_Z Lidar z offset from center of vehicle +down -1 1 0.00
LPE_ACC_XY Accelerometer xy standard deviation 0.00001 2 0.0454

Data sheet sqrt(Noise power) = 150ug/sqrt(Hz) std dev = (150*9.8*1e-6)*sqrt(1000 Hz) m/s^2 Since accels sampled at 1000 Hz. should be 0.0464

LPE_ACC_Z Accelerometer z standard deviation 0.00001 2 0.0454

(see Accel x comments)

LPE_BAR_Z Barometric presssure altitude z standard deviation 0.01 3 3.0
LPE_GPS_ON Enables GPS data, also forces alt init with GPS 1
LPE_GPS_DELAY GPS delay compensaton 0 0.4 0.25
LPE_GPS_XY GPS xy standard deviation 0.01 5 2.0
LPE_GPS_Z GPS z standard deviation 0.01 200 100.0
LPE_GPS_VXY GPS xy velocity standard deviation 0.01 2 0.25
LPE_GPS_VZ GPS z velocity standard deviation 0.01 2 0.25
LPE_EPH_MAX GPS max eph 1.0 5.0 3.0
LPE_EPV_MAX GPS max epv 1.0 5.0 5.0
LPE_VIS_XY Vision xy standard deviation 0.01 1 0.5
LPE_VIS_Z Vision z standard deviation 0.01 2 0.5
LPE_VIS_ON Vision correction 1
LPE_VIC_P Vicon position standard deviation 0.01 1 0.05
LPE_PN_P Position propagation noise density 0 1 0.0
LPE_PN_V Velocity propagation noise density 0 1 0.0
LPE_PN_B Accel bias propagation noise density 0 1 1e-3
LPE_PN_T Terrain random walk noise density, hilly/outdoor (1e-1), flat/Indoor (1e-3) 0 1 1e-1
LPE_FGYRO_HP Flow gyro high pass filter cut off frequency 0 2 0.1
LPE_LAT Home latitude for nav w/o GPS -90 90 40.430
LPE_LON Home longitude for nav w/o GPS -180 180 -86.929
Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
MAV_SYS_ID MAVLink system ID 1 250 1
MAV_COMP_ID MAVLink component ID 1 250 1
MAV_PROTO_VER MAVLink protocol version 1
MAV_RADIO_ID MAVLink Radio ID -1 240 0

When non-zero the MAVLink app will attempt to configure the radio to this ID and re-set the parameter to 0. If the value is negative it will reset the complete radio config to factory defaults.

MAV_TYPE MAVLink airframe type 1 2
MAV_USEHILGPS Use/Accept HIL GPS message even if not in HIL mode 0

If set to 1 incoming HIL GPS messages are parsed.

MAV_FWDEXTSP Forward external setpoint messages 1

If set to 1 incoming external setpoint messages will be directly forwarded to the controllers if in offboard control mode

MAV_BROADCAST Broadcast heartbeats on local network 0

This allows a ground control station to automatically find the drone on the local network.

MAV_TEST_PAR Test parameter -1000 1000 1

This parameter is not actively used by the system. Its purpose is to allow testing the parameter interface on the communication level.

MKBLCTRL Testmode

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
MKBLCTRL_TEST Test mode (Identify) of MKBLCTRL Driver 0

MPU9x50 Configuration

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
MPU_GYRO_LPF_ENM Low pass filter frequency for Gyro 4
MPU_ACC_LPF_ENM Low pass filter frequency for Accelerometer 4
MPU_SAMPLE_R_ENM Sample rate in Hz 2

Mission

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
COM_OBL_ACT Set offboard loss failsafe mode 0

The offboard loss failsafe will only be entered after a timeout, set by COM_OF_LOSS_T in seconds.

COM_OBL_RC_ACT Set offboard loss failsafe mode when RC is available 0

The offboard loss failsafe will only be entered after a timeout, set by COM_OF_LOSS_T in seconds.

MIS_TAKEOFF_ALT Take-off altitude 0 80 10.0

This is the minimum altitude the system will take off to.

MIS_LTRMIN_ALT Minimum Loiter altitude 0 80 1.2

This is the minimum altitude the system will always obey. The intent is to stay out of ground effect.

MIS_ONBOARD_EN Persistent onboard mission storage 1

When enabled, missions that have been uploaded by the GCS are stored and reloaded after reboot persistently.

MIS_DIST_1WP Maximal horizontal distance from home to first waypoint 0 1000 900

Failsafe check to prevent running mission stored from previous flight at a new takeoff location. Set a value of zero or less to disable. The mission will not be started if the current waypoint is more distant than MIS_DIS_1WP from the current position.

MIS_ALTMODE Altitude setpoint mode 0 1 1

0: the system will follow a zero order hold altitude setpoint 1: the system will follow a first order hold altitude setpoint values follow the definition in enum mission_altitude_mode

MIS_YAWMODE Multirotor only. Yaw setpoint mode 0 3 1

The values are defined in the enum mission_altitude_mode

MIS_YAW_TMT Time in seconds we wait on reaching target heading at a waypoint if it is forced -1 20 -1.0

If set > 0 it will ignore the target heading for normal waypoint acceptance. If the waypoint forces the heading the timeout will matter. For example on VTOL forwards transiton. Mainly useful for VTOLs that have less yaw authority and might not reach target yaw in wind. Disabled by default.

MIS_YAW_ERR Max yaw error in degrees needed for waypoint heading acceptance 0 90 12.0
VT_WV_LND_EN Weather-vane mode landings for missions 0
VT_WV_LTR_EN Weather-vane mode for loiter mode 0
NAV_LOITER_RAD Loiter radius (FW only) 25 1000 50.0

Default value of loiter radius for missions, loiter, RTL, etc. (fixedwing only).

NAV_ACC_RAD Acceptance Radius 0.05 200.0 10.0

Default acceptance radius, overridden by acceptance radius of waypoint if set.

NAV_DLL_ACT Set data link loss failsafe mode 0

The data link loss failsafe will only be entered after a timeout, set by COM_DL_LOSS_T in seconds. Once the timeout occurs the selected action will be executed. Setting this parameter to 4 will enable CASA Outback Challenge rules, which are only recommended to participants of that competition.

NAV_RCL_ACT Set RC loss failsafe mode 2

The RC loss failsafe will only be entered after a timeout, set by COM_RC_LOSS_T in seconds. If RC input checks have been disabled by setting the COM_RC_IN_MODE param it will not be triggered. Setting this parameter to 4 will enable CASA Outback Challenge rules, which are only recommended to participants of that competition.

Multicopter Attitude Control

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
MC_ROLL_TC Roll time constant 0.15 0.25 0.2

Reduce if the system is too twitchy, increase if the response is too slow and sluggish.

MC_PITCH_TC Pitch time constant 0.15 0.25 0.2

Reduce if the system is too twitchy, increase if the response is too slow and sluggish.

MC_ROLL_P Roll P gain 0.0 8 6.5

Roll proportional gain, i.e. desired angular speed in rad/s for error 1 rad.

MC_ROLLRATE_P Roll rate P gain 0.0 0.5 0.15

Roll rate proportional gain, i.e. control output for angular speed error 1 rad/s.

MC_ROLLRATE_I Roll rate I gain 0.0 0.05

Roll rate integral gain. Can be set to compensate static thrust difference or gravity center offset.

MC_ROLLRATE_D Roll rate D gain 0.0 0.01 0.003

Roll rate differential gain. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again.

MC_ROLLRATE_FF Roll rate feedforward 0.0 0.0

Improves tracking performance.

MC_PITCH_P Pitch P gain 0.0 10 6.5

Pitch proportional gain, i.e. desired angular speed in rad/s for error 1 rad.

MC_PITCHRATE_P Pitch rate P gain 0.0 0.6 0.15

Pitch rate proportional gain, i.e. control output for angular speed error 1 rad/s.

MC_PITCHRATE_I Pitch rate I gain 0.0 0.05

Pitch rate integral gain. Can be set to compensate static thrust difference or gravity center offset.

MC_PITCHRATE_D Pitch rate D gain 0.0 0.003

Pitch rate differential gain. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again.

MC_PITCHRATE_FF Pitch rate feedforward 0.0 0.0

Improves tracking performance.

MC_YAW_P Yaw P gain 0.0 5 2.8

Yaw proportional gain, i.e. desired angular speed in rad/s for error 1 rad.

MC_YAWRATE_P Yaw rate P gain 0.0 0.6 0.2

Yaw rate proportional gain, i.e. control output for angular speed error 1 rad/s.

MC_YAWRATE_I Yaw rate I gain 0.0 0.1

Yaw rate integral gain. Can be set to compensate static thrust difference or gravity center offset.

MC_YAWRATE_D Yaw rate D gain 0.0 0.0

Yaw rate differential gain. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again.

MC_YAWRATE_FF Yaw rate feedforward 0.0 0.0

Improves tracking performance.

MC_YAW_FF Yaw feed forward 0.0 1.0 0.5

Feed forward weight for manual yaw control. 0 will give slow responce and no overshot, 1 - fast responce and big overshot.

MC_ROLLRATE_MAX Max roll rate 0.0 360.0 220.0

Limit for roll rate, has effect for large rotations in autonomous mode, to avoid large control output and mixer saturation.

MC_PITCHRATE_MAX Max pitch rate 0.0 360.0 220.0

Limit for pitch rate, has effect for large rotations in autonomous mode, to avoid large control output and mixer saturation.

MC_YAWRATE_MAX Max yaw rate 0.0 360.0 200.0

A value of significantly over 120 degrees per second can already lead to mixer saturation.

MC_YAWRAUTO_MAX Max yaw rate in auto mode 0.0 120.0 45.0

Limit for yaw rate, has effect for large rotations in autonomous mode, to avoid large control output and mixer saturation. A value of significantly over 60 degrees per second can already lead to mixer saturation. A value of 30 degrees / second is recommended to avoid very audible twitches.

MC_ACRO_R_MAX Max acro roll rate 0.0 1000.0 360.0
MC_ACRO_P_MAX Max acro pitch rate 0.0 1000.0 360.0
MC_ACRO_Y_MAX Max acro yaw rate 0.0 1000.0 360.0
MC_RATT_TH Threshold for Rattitude mode 0.0 1.0 1.0

Manual input needed in order to override attitude control rate setpoints and instead pass manual stick inputs as rate setpoints

MP_ROLL_P Roll P gain 0.0 6.0

Roll proportional gain, i.e. desired angular speed in rad/s for error 1 rad.

MP_ROLLRATE_P Roll rate P gain 0.0 0.1

Roll rate proportional gain, i.e. control output for angular speed error 1 rad/s.

MP_ROLLRATE_I Roll rate I gain 0.0 0.0

Roll rate integral gain. Can be set to compensate static thrust difference or gravity center offset.

MP_ROLLRATE_D Roll rate D gain 0.0 0.002

Roll rate differential gain. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again.

MP_PITCH_P Pitch P gain 0.0 6.0

Pitch proportional gain, i.e. desired angular speed in rad/s for error 1 rad.

MP_PITCHRATE_P Pitch rate P gain 0.0 0.1

Pitch rate proportional gain, i.e. control output for angular speed error 1 rad/s.

MP_PITCHRATE_I Pitch rate I gain 0.0 0.0

Pitch rate integral gain. Can be set to compensate static thrust difference or gravity center offset.

MP_PITCHRATE_D Pitch rate D gain 0.0 0.002

Pitch rate differential gain. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again.

MP_YAW_P Yaw P gain 0.0 2.0

Yaw proportional gain, i.e. desired angular speed in rad/s for error 1 rad.

MP_YAWRATE_P Yaw rate P gain 0.0 0.3

Yaw rate proportional gain, i.e. control output for angular speed error 1 rad/s.

MP_YAWRATE_I Yaw rate I gain 0.0 0.0

Yaw rate integral gain. Can be set to compensate static thrust difference or gravity center offset.

MP_YAWRATE_D Yaw rate D gain 0.0 0.0

Yaw rate differential gain. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again.

MP_YAW_FF Yaw feed forward 0.0 1.0 0.5

Feed forward weight for manual yaw control. 0 will give slow responce and no overshot, 1 - fast responce and big overshot.

MP_YAWRATE_MAX Max yaw rate 0.0 360.0 60.0

Limit for yaw rate, has effect for large rotations in autonomous mode, to avoid large control output and mixer saturation.

MP_ACRO_R_MAX Max acro roll rate 0.0 360.0 35.0
MP_ACRO_P_MAX Max acro pitch rate 0.0 360.0 35.0
MP_ACRO_Y_MAX Max acro yaw rate 0.0 120.0
MPP_MAN_R_MAX Max manual roll 0.0 90.0 35.0
MPP_MAN_P_MAX Max manual pitch 0.0 90.0 35.0
MPP_MAN_Y_MAX Max manual yaw rate 0.0 120.0

Multicopter Position Control

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
MPC_THR_MIN Minimum thrust in auto thrust control 0.05 1.0 0.12

It's recommended to set it > 0 to avoid free fall with zero thrust.

MPC_THR_HOVER Hover thrust 0.2 0.8 0.5

Vertical thrust required to hover. This value is mapped to center stick for manual throttle control. With this value set to the thrust required to hover, transition from manual to ALTCTL mode while hovering will occur with the throttle stick near center, which is then interpreted as (near) zero demand for vertical speed.

MPC_ALTCTL_DZ ALTCTL throttle curve breakpoint 0.0 0.2 0.1

Halfwidth of deadband or reduced sensitivity center portion of curve. This is the halfwidth of the center region of the ALTCTL throttle curve. It extends from center-dz to center+dz.

MPC_ALTCTL_DY ALTCTL throttle curve breakpoint height 0.0 0.2 0.0

Controls the slope of the reduced sensitivity region. This is the height of the ALTCTL throttle curve at center-dz and center+dz.

MPC_THR_MAX Maximum thrust in auto thrust control 0.0 0.95 0.9

Limit max allowed thrust. Setting a value of one can put the system into actuator saturation as no spread between the motors is possible any more. A value of 0.8 - 0.9 is recommended.

MPC_MANTHR_MIN Minimum manual thrust 0.0 1.0 0.08

Minimum vertical thrust. It's recommended to set it > 0 to avoid free fall with zero thrust.

MPC_MANTHR_MAX Maximum manual thrust 0.0 1.0 0.9

Limit max allowed thrust. Setting a value of one can put the system into actuator saturation as no spread between the motors is possible any more. A value of 0.8 - 0.9 is recommended.

MPC_Z_P Proportional gain for vertical position error 0.0 1.5 1.0
MPC_Z_VEL_P Proportional gain for vertical velocity error 0.1 0.4 0.2
MPC_Z_VEL_I Integral gain for vertical velocity error 0.01 0.1 0.02

Non zero value allows hovering thrust estimation on stabilized or autonomous takeoff.

MPC_Z_VEL_D Differential gain for vertical velocity error 0.0 0.1 0.0
MPC_Z_VEL_MAX_UP Maximum vertical ascent velocity 0.5 8.0 3.0

Maximum vertical velocity in AUTO mode and endpoint for stabilized modes (ALTCTRL, POSCTRL).

MPC_Z_VEL_MAX Maximum vertical descent velocity 0.5 4.0 1.0

Maximum vertical velocity in AUTO mode and endpoint for stabilized modes (ALTCTRL, POSCTRL).

MPC_Z_VEL_MAX_DN Transitional support, do not change / use 0.5 4.0 1.0
MPC_Z_FF Vertical velocity feed forward 0.0 1.0 0.5

Feed forward weight for altitude control in stabilized modes (ALTCTRL, POSCTRL). 0 will give slow responce and no overshot, 1 - fast responce and big overshot.

MPC_XY_P Proportional gain for horizontal position error 0.0 2.0 1.25
MPC_XY_VEL_P Proportional gain for horizontal velocity error 0.06 0.15 0.09
MPC_XY_VEL_I Integral gain for horizontal velocity error 0.0 0.1 0.02

Non-zero value allows to resist wind.

MPC_XY_VEL_D Differential gain for horizontal velocity error. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again 0.005 0.1 0.01
MPC_XY_CRUISE Nominal horizontal velocity 3.0 20.0 5.0

Normal horizontal velocity in AUTO modes (includes also RTL / hold / etc.) and endpoint for position stabilized mode (POSCTRL).

MPC_XY_VEL_MAX Maximum horizontal velocity 0.0 20.0 8.0

Maximum horizontal velocity in AUTO mode. If higher speeds are commanded in a mission they will be capped to this velocity.

MPC_XY_FF Horizontal velocity feed forward 0.0 1.0 0.5

Feed forward weight for position control in position control mode (POSCTRL). 0 will give slow responce and no overshot, 1 - fast responce and big overshot.

MPC_TILTMAX_AIR Maximum tilt angle in air 0.0 90.0 45.0

Limits maximum tilt in AUTO and POSCTRL modes during flight.

MPC_TILTMAX_LND Maximum tilt during landing 0.0 90.0 12.0

Limits maximum tilt angle on landing.

MPC_LAND_SPEED Landing descend rate 0.2 0.5
MPC_TKO_SPEED Takeoff climb rate 1 5 1.5
MPC_MAN_R_MAX Max manual roll 0.0 90.0 35.0
MPC_MAN_P_MAX Max manual pitch 0.0 90.0 35.0
MPC_MAN_Y_MAX Max manual yaw rate 0.0 400 200.0
MPC_HOLD_XY_DZ Deadzone of X,Y sticks where position hold is enabled 0.0 1.0 0.1
MPC_HOLD_MAX_XY Maximum horizontal velocity for which position hold is enabled (use 0 to disable check) 0.0 3.0 0.8
MPC_HOLD_MAX_Z Maximum vertical velocity for which position hold is enabled (use 0 to disable check) 0.0 3.0 0.6
MPC_VELD_LP Low pass filter cut freq. for numerical velocity derivative 0.0 10 5.0
MPC_ACC_HOR_MAX Maximum horizonal acceleration in velocity controlled modes 2.0 15.0 10.0
MPC_ALT_MODE Altitude control mode, note mode 1 only tested with LPE 0 1 0
MPP_THR_MIN Minimum thrust 0.0 1.0 0.1

Minimum vertical thrust. It's recommended to set it > 0 to avoid free fall with zero thrust.

MPP_THR_MAX Maximum thrust 0.0 1.0 1.0

Limit max allowed thrust.

MPP_Z_P Proportional gain for vertical position error 0.0 1.0
MPP_Z_VEL_P Proportional gain for vertical velocity error 0.0 0.1
MPP_Z_VEL_I Integral gain for vertical velocity error 0.0 0.02

Non zero value allows hovering thrust estimation on stabilized or autonomous takeoff.

MPP_Z_VEL_D Differential gain for vertical velocity error 0.0 0.0
MPP_Z_VEL_MAX Maximum vertical velocity 0.0 5.0

Maximum vertical velocity in AUTO mode and endpoint for stabilized modes (ALTCTRL).

MPP_Z_FF Vertical velocity feed forward 0.0 1.0 0.5

Feed forward weight for altitude control in stabilized modes (ALTCTRL). 0 will give slow responce and no overshot, 1 - fast responce and big overshot.

MPP_XY_P Proportional gain for horizontal position error 0.0 1.0
MPP_XY_VEL_P Proportional gain for horizontal velocity error 0.0 0.1
MPP_XY_VEL_I Integral gain for horizontal velocity error 0.0 0.02

Non-zero value allows to resist wind.

MPP_XY_VEL_D Differential gain for horizontal velocity error. Small values help reduce fast oscillations. If value is too big oscillations will appear again 0.0 0.01
MPP_XY_VEL_MAX Maximum horizontal velocity 0.0 5.0

Maximum horizontal velocity in AUTO mode and endpoint for position stabilized mode (POSCTRL).

MPP_XY_FF Horizontal velocity feed forward 0.0 1.0 0.5

Feed forward weight for position control in position control mode (POSCTRL). 0 will give slow responce and no overshot, 1 - fast responce and big overshot.

MPP_TILTMAX_AIR Maximum tilt angle in air 0.0 90.0 45.0

Limits maximum tilt in AUTO and POSCTRL modes during flight.

MPP_TILTMAX_LND Maximum tilt during landing 0.0 90.0 15.0

Limits maximum tilt angle on landing.

MPP_LAND_SPEED Landing descend rate 0.0 1.0

PWM Outputs

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
PWM_AUX_REV1 Invert direction of aux output channel 1 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_AUX_REV2 Invert direction of aux output channel 2 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_AUX_REV3 Invert direction of aux output channel 3 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_AUX_REV4 Invert direction of aux output channel 4 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_AUX_REV5 Invert direction of aux output channel 5 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_AUX_REV6 Invert direction of aux output channel 6 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV1 Invert direction of main output channel 1 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV2 Invert direction of main output channel 2 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV3 Invert direction of main output channel 3 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV4 Invert direction of main output channel 4 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV5 Invert direction of main output channel 5 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV6 Invert direction of main output channel 6 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV7 Invert direction of main output channel 7 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_MAIN_REV8 Invert direction of main output channel 8 0

Set to 1 to invert the channel, 0 for default direction.

PWM_SBUS_MODE S.BUS out 0

Set to 1 to enable S.BUS version 1 output instead of RSSI.

PWM_MIN Set the minimum PWM for the MAIN outputs 800 1400 1000

IMPORTANT: CHANGING THIS PARAMETER REQUIRES A COMPLETE SYSTEM REBOOT IN ORDER TO APPLY THE CHANGES. COMPLETELY POWER-CYCLE THE SYSTEM TO PUT CHANGES INTO EFFECT. Set to 1000 for industry default or 900 to increase servo travel.

PWM_MAX Set the maximum PWM for the MAIN outputs 1600 2200 2000

IMPORTANT: CHANGING THIS PARAMETER REQUIRES A COMPLETE SYSTEM REBOOT IN ORDER TO APPLY THE CHANGES. COMPLETELY POWER-CYCLE THE SYSTEM TO PUT CHANGES INTO EFFECT. Set to 2000 for industry default or 2100 to increase servo travel.

PWM_DISARMED Set the disarmed PWM for MAIN outputs 0 2200 0

IMPORTANT: CHANGING THIS PARAMETER REQUIRES A COMPLETE SYSTEM REBOOT IN ORDER TO APPLY THE CHANGES. COMPLETELY POWER-CYCLE THE SYSTEM TO PUT CHANGES INTO EFFECT. This is the PWM pulse the autopilot is outputting if not armed. The main use of this parameter is to silence ESCs when they are disarmed.

PWM_AUX_MIN Set the minimum PWM for the MAIN outputs 800 1400 1000

IMPORTANT: CHANGING THIS PARAMETER REQUIRES A COMPLETE SYSTEM REBOOT IN ORDER TO APPLY THE CHANGES. COMPLETELY POWER-CYCLE THE SYSTEM TO PUT CHANGES INTO EFFECT. Set to 1000 for default or 900 to increase servo travel

PWM_AUX_MAX Set the maximum PWM for the MAIN outputs 1600 2200 2000

IMPORTANT: CHANGING THIS PARAMETER REQUIRES A COMPLETE SYSTEM REBOOT IN ORDER TO APPLY THE CHANGES. COMPLETELY POWER-CYCLE THE SYSTEM TO PUT CHANGES INTO EFFECT. Set to 2000 for default or 2100 to increase servo travel

PWM_AUX_DISARMED Set the disarmed PWM for AUX outputs 0 2200 1000

IMPORTANT: CHANGING THIS PARAMETER REQUIRES A COMPLETE SYSTEM REBOOT IN ORDER TO APPLY THE CHANGES. COMPLETELY POWER-CYCLE THE SYSTEM TO PUT CHANGES INTO EFFECT. This is the PWM pulse the autopilot is outputting if not armed. The main use of this parameter is to silence ESCs when they are disarmed.

Payload drop

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
BD_GPROPERTIES Ground drag property 0.001 0.1 0.03

This parameter encodes the ground drag coefficient and the corresponding decrease in wind speed from the plane altitude to ground altitude.

BD_TURNRADIUS Plane turn radius 30.0 500.0 120.0

The planes known minimal turn radius - use a higher value to make the plane maneuver more distant from the actual drop position. This is to ensure the wings are level during the drop.

BD_PRECISION Drop precision 1.0 80.0 30.0

If the system is closer than this distance on passing over the drop position, it will release the payload. This is a safeguard to prevent a drop out of the required accuracy.

BD_OBJ_CD Payload drag coefficient of the dropped object 0.08 1.5 0.1

The drag coefficient (cd) is the typical drag constant for air. It is in general object specific, but the closest primitive shape to the actual object should give good results: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_coefficient

BD_OBJ_MASS Payload mass 0.001 5.0 0.6

A typical small toy ball: 0.025 kg OBC water bottle: 0.6 kg

BD_OBJ_SURFACE Payload front surface area 0.001 0.5 0.00311724531

A typical small toy ball: (0.045 * 0.045) / 4.0 * pi = 0.001590 m^2 OBC water bottle: (0.063 * 0.063) / 4.0 * pi = 0.003117 m^2

Position Estimator

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
PE_VEL_DELAY_MS Velocity estimate delay 0 1000 230

The delay in milliseconds of the velocity estimate from GPS.

PE_POS_DELAY_MS Position estimate delay 0 1000 210

The delay in milliseconds of the position estimate from GPS.

PE_HGT_DELAY_MS Height estimate delay 0 1000 350

The delay in milliseconds of the height estimate from the barometer.

PE_MAG_DELAY_MS Mag estimate delay 0 1000 30

The delay in milliseconds of the magnetic field estimate from the magnetometer.

PE_TAS_DELAY_MS True airspeeed estimate delay 0 1000 210

The delay in milliseconds of the airspeed estimate.

PE_GPS_ALT_WGT GPS vs. barometric altitude update weight 0.0 1.0 0.9

RE-CHECK this.

PE_EAS_NOISE Airspeed measurement noise 0.5 5.0 1.4

Increasing this value will make the filter trust this sensor less and trust other sensors more.

PE_VELNE_NOISE Velocity measurement noise in north-east (horizontal) direction 0.05 5.0 0.3

Generic default: 0.3, multicopters: 0.5, ground vehicles: 0.5

PE_VELD_NOISE Velocity noise in down (vertical) direction 0.2 3.0 0.3

Generic default: 0.3, multicopters: 0.4, ground vehicles: 0.7

PE_POSNE_NOISE Position noise in north-east (horizontal) direction 0.1 10.0 0.5

Generic defaults: 0.5, multicopters: 0.5, ground vehicles: 0.5

PE_POSD_NOISE Position noise in down (vertical) direction 0.5 3.0 1.25

Generic defaults: 1.25, multicopters: 1.0, ground vehicles: 1.0

PE_MAG_NOISE Magnetometer measurement noise 0.01 1.0 0.05

Generic defaults: 0.05, multicopters: 0.05, ground vehicles: 0.05

PE_GYRO_PNOISE Gyro process noise 0.001 0.05 0.015

Generic defaults: 0.015, multicopters: 0.015, ground vehicles: 0.015. This noise controls how much the filter trusts the gyro measurements. Increasing it makes the filter trust the gyro less and other sensors more.

PE_ACC_PNOISE Accelerometer process noise 0.05 1.0 0.125

Generic defaults: 0.25, multicopters: 0.25, ground vehicles: 0.25. Increasing this value makes the filter trust the accelerometer less and other sensors more.

PE_GBIAS_PNOISE Gyro bias estimate process noise 0.00000005 0.00001 1e-07

Generic defaults: 1e-07f, multicopters: 1e-07f, ground vehicles: 1e-07f. Increasing this value will make the gyro bias converge faster but noisier.

PE_ABIAS_PNOISE Accelerometer bias estimate process noise 0.00001 0.001 1e-05

Generic defaults: 0.00001f, multicopters: 0.00001f, ground vehicles: 0.00001f. Increasing this value makes the bias estimation faster and noisier.

PE_MAGE_PNOISE Magnetometer earth frame offsets process noise 0.0001 0.01 0.0003

Generic defaults: 0.0001, multicopters: 0.0001, ground vehicles: 0.0001. Increasing this value makes the magnetometer earth bias estimate converge faster but also noisier.

PE_MAGB_PNOISE Magnetometer body frame offsets process noise 0.0001 0.01 0.0003

Generic defaults: 0.0003, multicopters: 0.0003, ground vehicles: 0.0003. Increasing this value makes the magnetometer body bias estimate converge faster but also noisier.

PE_MAGB_X Magnetometer X bias -0.6 0.6 0.0

The magnetometer bias. This bias is learnt by the filter over time and persists between boots.

PE_MAGB_Y Magnetometer Y bias -0.6 0.6 0.0

The magnetometer bias. This bias is learnt by the filter over time and persists between boots.

PE_MAGB_Z Magnetometer Z bias -0.6 0.6 0.0

The magnetometer bias. This bias is learnt by the filter over time and persists between boots.

PE_POSDEV_INIT Threshold for filter initialization 0.3 10.0 5.0

If the standard deviation of the GPS position estimate is below this threshold in meters, the filter will initialize.

Position Estimator INAV

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
INAV_W_Z_BARO Z axis weight for barometer 0.0 10.0 0.5

Weight (cutoff frequency) for barometer altitude measurements.

INAV_W_Z_GPS_P Z axis weight for GPS 0.0 10.0 0.005

Weight (cutoff frequency) for GPS altitude measurements. GPS altitude data is very noisy and should be used only as slow correction for baro offset.

INAV_W_Z_GPS_V Z velocity weight for GPS 0.0 10.0 0.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for GPS altitude velocity measurements.

INAV_W_Z_VIS_P Z axis weight for vision 0.0 10.0 5.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for vision altitude measurements. vision altitude data is very noisy and should be used only as slow correction for baro offset.

INAV_W_Z_LIDAR Z axis weight for lidar 0.0 10.0 3.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for lidar measurements.

INAV_W_XY_GPS_P XY axis weight for GPS position 0.0 10.0 1.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for GPS position measurements.

INAV_W_XY_GPS_V XY axis weight for GPS velocity 0.0 10.0 2.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for GPS velocity measurements.

INAV_W_XY_VIS_P XY axis weight for vision position 0.0 10.0 7.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for vision position measurements.

INAV_W_XY_VIS_V XY axis weight for vision velocity 0.0 10.0 0.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for vision velocity measurements.

INAV_W_MOC_P Weight for mocap system 0.0 10.0 10.0

Weight (cutoff frequency) for mocap position measurements.

INAV_W_XY_FLOW XY axis weight for optical flow 0.0 10.0 0.8

Weight (cutoff frequency) for optical flow (velocity) measurements.

INAV_W_XY_RES_V XY axis weight for resetting velocity 0.0 10.0 0.5

When velocity sources lost slowly decrease estimated horizontal velocity with this weight.

INAV_W_GPS_FLOW XY axis weight factor for GPS when optical flow available 0.0 1.0 0.1

When optical flow data available, multiply GPS weights (for position and velocity) by this factor.

INAV_W_ACC_BIAS Accelerometer bias estimation weight 0.0 0.1 0.05

Weight (cutoff frequency) for accelerometer bias estimation. 0 to disable.

INAV_FLOW_K Optical flow scale factor 0.0 10.0 1.35

Factor to scale optical flow

INAV_FLOW_Q_MIN Minimal acceptable optical flow quality 0.0 1.0 0.3

0 - lowest quality, 1 - best quality.

INAV_LIDAR_ERR Sonar maximal error for new surface 0.0 1.0 0.2

If sonar measurement error is larger than this value it skiped (spike) or accepted as new surface level (if offset is stable).

INAV_LAND_T Land detector time 0.0 10.0 3.0

Vehicle assumed landed if no altitude changes happened during this time on low throttle.

INAV_LAND_DISP Land detector altitude dispersion threshold 0.0 10.0 0.7

Dispersion threshold for triggering land detector.

INAV_LAND_THR Land detector throttle threshold 0.0 1.0 0.2

Value should be lower than minimal hovering thrust. Half of it is good choice.

INAV_DELAY_GPS GPS delay 0.0 1.0 0.2

GPS delay compensation

INAV_FLOW_DIST_X Flow module offset (center of rotation) in X direction -1.0 1.0 0.0

Yaw X flow compensation

INAV_FLOW_DIST_Y Flow module offset (center of rotation) in Y direction -1.0 1.0 0.0

Yaw Y flow compensation

INAV_DISAB_MOCAP Mo-cap 0

Set to 0 if using fake GPS

INAV_LIDAR_EST LIDAR for altitude estimation 0
INAV_LIDAR_OFF LIDAR calibration offset -20 20 0.0

LIDAR calibration offset. Value will be added to the measured distance

CBRK_NO_VISION Disable vision input 0 328754 0

Set to the appropriate key (328754) to disable vision input.

RC Receiver Configuration

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
RC_RECEIVER_TYPE RC receiver type 1

Acceptable values: - RC_RECEIVER_SPEKTRUM = 1, - RC_RECEIVER_LEMONRX = 2,

Radio Calibration

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
TRIM_ROLL Roll trim -0.25 0.25 0.0

The trim value is the actuator control value the system needs for straight and level flight. It can be calibrated by flying manually straight and level using the RC trims and copying them using the GCS.

TRIM_PITCH Pitch trim -0.25 0.25 0.0

The trim value is the actuator control value the system needs for straight and level flight. It can be calibrated by flying manually straight and level using the RC trims and copying them using the GCS.

TRIM_YAW Yaw trim -0.25 0.25 0.0

The trim value is the actuator control value the system needs for straight and level flight. It can be calibrated by flying manually straight and level using the RC trims and copying them using the GCS.

RC1_MIN RC Channel 1 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000.0

Minimum value for RC channel 1

RC1_TRIM RC Channel 1 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500.0

Mid point value (same as min for throttle)

RC1_MAX RC Channel 1 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000.0

Maximum value for RC channel 1

RC1_REV RC Channel 1 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC1_DZ RC Channel 1 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC2_MIN RC Channel 2 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000.0

Minimum value for this channel.

RC2_TRIM RC Channel 2 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500.0

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC2_MAX RC Channel 2 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000.0

Maximum value for this channel.

RC2_REV RC Channel 2 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC2_DZ RC Channel 2 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC3_MIN RC Channel 3 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC3_TRIM RC Channel 3 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC3_MAX RC Channel 3 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC3_REV RC Channel 3 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC3_DZ RC Channel 3 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC4_MIN RC Channel 4 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC4_TRIM RC Channel 4 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC4_MAX RC Channel 4 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC4_REV RC Channel 4 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC4_DZ RC Channel 4 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC5_MIN RC Channel 5 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC5_TRIM RC Channel 5 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC5_MAX RC Channel 5 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC5_REV RC Channel 5 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC5_DZ RC Channel 5 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC6_MIN RC Channel 6 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC6_TRIM RC Channel 6 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC6_MAX RC Channel 6 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC6_REV RC Channel 6 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC6_DZ RC Channel 6 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC7_MIN RC Channel 7 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC7_TRIM RC Channel 7 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC7_MAX RC Channel 7 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC7_REV RC Channel 7 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC7_DZ RC Channel 7 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC8_MIN RC Channel 8 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC8_TRIM RC Channel 8 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC8_MAX RC Channel 8 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC8_REV RC Channel 8 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC8_DZ RC Channel 8 dead zone 0.0 100.0 10.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC9_MIN RC Channel 9 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC9_TRIM RC Channel 9 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC9_MAX RC Channel 9 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC9_REV RC Channel 9 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC9_DZ RC Channel 9 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC10_MIN RC Channel 10 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC10_TRIM RC Channel 10 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC10_MAX RC Channel 10 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC10_REV RC Channel 10 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC10_DZ RC Channel 10 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC11_MIN RC Channel 11 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC11_TRIM RC Channel 11 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC11_MAX RC Channel 11 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC11_REV RC Channel 11 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC11_DZ RC Channel 11 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC12_MIN RC Channel 12 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC12_TRIM RC Channel 12 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC12_MAX RC Channel 12 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC12_REV RC Channel 12 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC12_DZ RC Channel 12 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC13_MIN RC Channel 13 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC13_TRIM RC Channel 13 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC13_MAX RC Channel 13 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC13_REV RC Channel 13 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC13_DZ RC Channel 13 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC14_MIN RC Channel 14 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC14_TRIM RC Channel 14 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC14_MAX RC Channel 14 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC14_REV RC Channel 14 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC14_DZ RC Channel 14 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC15_MIN RC Channel 15 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC15_TRIM RC Channel 15 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC15_MAX RC Channel 15 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC15_REV RC Channel 15 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC15_DZ RC Channel 15 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC16_MIN RC Channel 16 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC16_TRIM RC Channel 16 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC16_MAX RC Channel 16 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC16_REV RC Channel 16 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC16_DZ RC Channel 16 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC17_MIN RC Channel 17 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC17_TRIM RC Channel 17 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC17_MAX RC Channel 17 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC17_REV RC Channel 17 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC17_DZ RC Channel 17 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC18_MIN RC Channel 18 Minimum 800.0 1500.0 1000

Minimum value for this channel.

RC18_TRIM RC Channel 18 Trim 800.0 2200.0 1500

Mid point value (has to be set to the same as min for throttle channel).

RC18_MAX RC Channel 18 Maximum 1500.0 2200.0 2000

Maximum value for this channel.

RC18_REV RC Channel 18 Reverse -1.0 1.0 1.0

Set to -1 to reverse channel.

RC18_DZ RC Channel 18 dead zone 0.0 100.0 0.0

The +- range of this value around the trim value will be considered as zero.

RC_RL1_DSM_VCC Relay control of relay 1 mapped to the Spektrum receiver power supply 0 1 0
RC_DSM_BIND DSM binding trigger -1 1 -1
RC_CHAN_CNT RC channel count 0 18 0

This parameter is used by Ground Station software to save the number of channels which were used during RC calibration. It is only meant for ground station use.

RC_TH_USER RC mode switch threshold automatic distribution 1

This parameter is used by Ground Station software to specify whether the threshold values for flight mode switches were automatically calculated. 0 indicates that the threshold values were set by the user. Any other value indicates that the threshold value where automatically set by the ground station software. It is only meant for ground station use.

RC_MAP_ROLL Roll control channel mapping 0 18 0

The channel index (starting from 1 for channel 1) indicates which channel should be used for reading roll inputs from. A value of zero indicates the switch is not assigned.

RC_MAP_PITCH Pitch control channel mapping 0 18 0

The channel index (starting from 1 for channel 1) indicates which channel should be used for reading pitch inputs from. A value of zero indicates the switch is not assigned.

RC_MAP_THROTTLE Throttle control channel mapping 0 18 0

The channel index (starting from 1 for channel 1) indicates which channel should be used for reading throttle inputs from. A value of zero indicates the switch is not assigned.

RC_MAP_YAW Yaw control channel mapping 0 18 0

The channel index (starting from 1 for channel 1) indicates which channel should be used for reading yaw inputs from. A value of zero indicates the switch is not assigned.

RC_MAP_AUX1 AUX1 Passthrough RC Channel 0 18 0

Default function: Camera pitch

RC_MAP_AUX2 AUX2 Passthrough RC Channel 0 18 0

Default function: Camera roll

RC_MAP_AUX3 AUX3 Passthrough RC Channel 0 18 0

Default function: Camera azimuth / yaw

RC_MAP_AUX4 AUX4 Passthrough RC Channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_AUX5 AUX5 Passthrough RC Channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_PARAM1 PARAM1 tuning channel 0 18 0

Can be used for parameter tuning with the RC. This one is further referenced as the 1st parameter channel. Set to 0 to deactivate *

RC_MAP_PARAM2 PARAM2 tuning channel 0 18 0

Can be used for parameter tuning with the RC. This one is further referenced as the 2nd parameter channel. Set to 0 to deactivate *

RC_MAP_PARAM3 PARAM3 tuning channel 0 18 0

Can be used for parameter tuning with the RC. This one is further referenced as the 3th parameter channel. Set to 0 to deactivate *

RC_FAILS_THR Failsafe channel PWM threshold 0 2200 0

Set to a value slightly above the PWM value assumed by throttle in a failsafe event, but ensure it is below the PWM value assumed by throttle during normal operation.

RC_RSSI_PWM_CHAN PWM input channel that provides RSSI 0 18 0

0: do not read RSSI from input channel 1-18: read RSSI from specified input channel Specify the range for RSSI input with RC_RSSI_PWM_MIN and RC_RSSI_PWM_MAX parameters.

RC_RSSI_PWM_MAX Max input value for RSSI reading 0 2000 1000

Only used if RC_RSSI_PWM_CHAN > 0

RC_RSSI_PWM_MIN Min input value for RSSI reading 0 2000 2000

Only used if RC_RSSI_PWM_CHAN > 0

Radio Signal Loss

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
NAV_RCL_LT Loiter Time -1.0 120.0

The amount of time in seconds the system should loiter at current position before termination Set to -1 to make the system skip loitering

Radio Switches

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
RC_MAP_FLTMODE Single channel flight mode selection 0 18 0

If this parameter is non-zero, flight modes are only selected by this channel and are assigned to six slots.

RC_MAP_MODE_SW Mode switch channel mapping 0 18 0

This is the main flight mode selector. The channel index (starting from 1 for channel 1) indicates which channel should be used for deciding about the main mode. A value of zero indicates the switch is not assigned.

RC_MAP_RETURN_SW Return switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_RATT_SW Rattitude switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_POSCTL_SW Position Control switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_LOITER_SW Loiter switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_ACRO_SW Acro switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_OFFB_SW Offboard switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_KILL_SW Kill switch channel 0 18 0
RC_MAP_FLAPS Flaps channel 0 18 0
RC_ASSIST_TH Threshold for selecting assist mode -1 1 0.25

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_AUTO_TH Threshold for selecting auto mode -1 1 0.75

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_RATT_TH Threshold for selecting rattitude mode -1 1 0.5

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_POSCTL_TH Threshold for selecting posctl mode -1 1 0.5

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_RETURN_TH Threshold for selecting return to launch mode -1 1 0.5

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_LOITER_TH Threshold for selecting loiter mode -1 1 0.5

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_ACRO_TH Threshold for selecting acro mode -1 1 0.5

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_OFFB_TH Threshold for selecting offboard mode -1 1 0.5

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

RC_KILLSWITCH_TH Threshold for the kill switch -1 1 0.25

0-1 indicate where in the full channel range the threshold sits 0 : min 1 : max sign indicates polarity of comparison positive : true when channel>th negative : true when channel<th

Return To Land

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
RTL_RETURN_ALT RTL altitude 0 150 60

Altitude to fly back in RTL in meters

RTL_DESCEND_ALT RTL loiter altitude 2 100 30

Stay at this altitude above home position after RTL descending. Land (i.e. slowly descend) from this altitude if autolanding allowed.

RTL_LAND_DELAY RTL delay -1 300 -1.0

Delay after descend before landing in RTL mode. If set to -1 the system will not land but loiter at RTL_DESCEND_ALT.

RTL_MIN_DIST Minimum distance to trigger rising to a safe altitude 0.5 20 5.0

If the system is horizontally closer than this distance to home it will land straight on home instead of raising to the return altitude first.

Runway Takeoff

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
RWTO_TKOFF Runway takeoff with landing gear 0
RWTO_HDG Specifies which heading should be held during runnway takeoff 0 1 0

0: airframe heading, 1: heading towards takeoff waypoint

RWTO_NAV_ALT Altitude AGL at which we have enough ground clearance to allow some roll. Until RWTO_NAV_ALT is reached the plane is held level and only rudder is used to keep the heading (see RWTO_HDG). This should be below FW_CLMBOUT_DIFF if FW_CLMBOUT_DIFF > 0 0.0 100.0 5.0
RWTO_MAX_THR Max throttle during runway takeoff. (Can be used to test taxi on runway) 0.0 1.0 1.0
RWTO_PSP Pitch setpoint during taxi / before takeoff airspeed is reached. A taildragger with stearable wheel might need to pitch up a little to keep it's wheel on the ground before airspeed to takeoff is reached 0.0 20.0 0.0
RWTO_MAX_PITCH Max pitch during takeoff. Fixed-wing settings are used if set to 0. Note that there is also a minimum pitch of 10 degrees during takeoff, so this must be larger if set 0.0 60.0 20.0
RWTO_MAX_ROLL Max roll during climbout. Roll is limited during climbout to ensure enough lift and prevents aggressive navigation before we're on a safe height 0.0 60.0 25.0
RWTO_AIRSPD_SCL Min. airspeed scaling factor for takeoff. Pitch up will be commanded when the following airspeed is reached: FW_AIRSPD_MIN * RWTO_AIRSPD_SCL 0.0 2.0 1.3

SD Logging

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
SDLOG_UTC_OFFSET UTC offset (unit: min) -1000 1000 0

the difference in hours and minutes from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) for a your place and date. for example, In case of South Korea(UTC+09:00), UTC offset is 540 min (9*60) refer to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UTC_time_offsets

SDLOG_RATE Logging rate -1 250 -1

A value of -1 indicates the commandline argument should be obeyed. A value of 0 sets the minimum rate, any other value is interpreted as rate in Hertz. This parameter is only read out before logging starts (which commonly is before arming).

SDLOG_EXT Extended logging mode -1 1 -1

A value of -1 indicates the command line argument should be obeyed. A value of 0 disables extended logging mode, a value of 1 enables it. This parameter is only read out before logging starts (which commonly is before arming).

SDLOG_GPSTIME Use timestamps only if GPS 3D fix is available 1

Constrain the log folder creation to only use the time stamp if a 3D GPS lock is present.

SDLOG_PRIO_BOOST Give logging app higher thread priority to avoid data loss. This is used for gathering replay logs for the ekf2 module 0 3 2

A value of 0 indicates that the default priority is used. Increasing the parameter in steps of one increases the priority.

Sensor Calibration

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
CAL_BOARD_ID ID of the board this parameter set was calibrated on 0
CAL_GYRO0_ID ID of the Gyro that the calibration is for 0
CAL_GYRO0_XOFF Gyro X-axis offset -10.0 10.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO0_YOFF Gyro Y-axis offset -10.0 10.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO0_ZOFF Gyro Z-axis offset -5.0 5.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO0_XSCALE Gyro X-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_GYRO0_YSCALE Gyro Y-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_GYRO0_ZSCALE Gyro Z-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_MAG0_ID ID of Magnetometer the calibration is for 0
CAL_MAG0_ROT Rotation of magnetometer 0 relative to airframe -1 30 -1

An internal magnetometer will force a value of -1, so a GCS should only attempt to configure the rotation if the value is greater than or equal to zero.

CAL_MAG0_XOFF Magnetometer X-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG0_YOFF Magnetometer Y-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG0_ZOFF Magnetometer Z-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG0_XSCALE Magnetometer X-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_MAG0_YSCALE Magnetometer Y-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_MAG0_ZSCALE Magnetometer Z-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC0_ID ID of the Accelerometer that the calibration is for 0
CAL_ACC0_XOFF Accelerometer X-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC0_YOFF Accelerometer Y-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC0_ZOFF Accelerometer Z-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC0_XSCALE Accelerometer X-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC0_YSCALE Accelerometer Y-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC0_ZSCALE Accelerometer Z-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_GYRO1_ID ID of the Gyro that the calibration is for 0
CAL_GYRO1_XOFF Gyro X-axis offset -10.0 10.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO1_YOFF Gyro Y-axis offset -10.0 10.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO1_ZOFF Gyro Z-axis offset -5.0 5.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO1_XSCALE Gyro X-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_GYRO1_YSCALE Gyro Y-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_GYRO1_ZSCALE Gyro Z-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_MAG1_ID ID of Magnetometer the calibration is for 0
CAL_MAG1_ROT Rotation of magnetometer 1 relative to airframe -1 30 -1

An internal magnetometer will force a value of -1, so a GCS should only attempt to configure the rotation if the value is greater than or equal to zero.

CAL_MAG1_XOFF Magnetometer X-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG1_YOFF Magnetometer Y-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG1_ZOFF Magnetometer Z-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG1_XSCALE Magnetometer X-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_MAG1_YSCALE Magnetometer Y-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_MAG1_ZSCALE Magnetometer Z-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC1_ID ID of the Accelerometer that the calibration is for 0
CAL_ACC1_XOFF Accelerometer X-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC1_YOFF Accelerometer Y-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC1_ZOFF Accelerometer Z-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC1_XSCALE Accelerometer X-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC1_YSCALE Accelerometer Y-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC1_ZSCALE Accelerometer Z-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_GYRO2_ID ID of the Gyro that the calibration is for 0
CAL_GYRO2_XOFF Gyro X-axis offset -10.0 10.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO2_YOFF Gyro Y-axis offset -10.0 10.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO2_ZOFF Gyro Z-axis offset -5.0 5.0 0.0
CAL_GYRO2_XSCALE Gyro X-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_GYRO2_YSCALE Gyro Y-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_GYRO2_ZSCALE Gyro Z-axis scaling factor -1.5 1.5 1.0
CAL_MAG2_ID ID of Magnetometer the calibration is for 0
CAL_MAG2_ROT Rotation of magnetometer 2 relative to airframe -1 30 -1

An internal magnetometer will force a value of -1, so a GCS should only attempt to configure the rotation if the value is greater than or equal to zero.

CAL_MAG2_XOFF Magnetometer X-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG2_YOFF Magnetometer Y-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG2_ZOFF Magnetometer Z-axis offset -500.0 500.0 0.0
CAL_MAG2_XSCALE Magnetometer X-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_MAG2_YSCALE Magnetometer Y-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_MAG2_ZSCALE Magnetometer Z-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC2_ID ID of the Accelerometer that the calibration is for 0
CAL_ACC2_XOFF Accelerometer X-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC2_YOFF Accelerometer Y-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC2_ZOFF Accelerometer Z-axis offset 0.0
CAL_ACC2_XSCALE Accelerometer X-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC2_YSCALE Accelerometer Y-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC2_ZSCALE Accelerometer Z-axis scaling factor 1.0
CAL_ACC_PRIME Primary accel ID 0
CAL_GYRO_PRIME Primary gyro ID 0
CAL_MAG_PRIME Primary mag ID 0
CAL_MAG_SIDES Bitfield selecting mag sides for calibration 34 63 63

DETECT_ORIENTATION_TAIL_DOWN = 1 DETECT_ORIENTATION_NOSE_DOWN = 2 DETECT_ORIENTATION_LEFT = 4 DETECT_ORIENTATION_RIGHT = 8 DETECT_ORIENTATION_UPSIDE_DOWN = 16 DETECT_ORIENTATION_RIGHTSIDE_UP = 32

CAL_BARO_PRIME Primary baro ID 0
SENS_DPRES_OFF Differential pressure sensor offset 0.0

The offset (zero-reading) in Pascal

SENS_DPRES_ANSC Differential pressure sensor analog scaling 0

Pick the appropriate scaling from the datasheet. this number defines the (linear) conversion from voltage to Pascal (pa). For the MPXV7002DP this is 1000. NOTE: If the sensor always registers zero, try switching the static and dynamic tubes.

SENS_BARO_QNH QNH for barometer 500 1500 1013.25
SENS_BOARD_ROT Board rotation 0

This parameter defines the rotation of the FMU board relative to the platform.

SENS_FLOW_ROT PX4Flow board rotation 0

This parameter defines the rotation of the PX4FLOW board relative to the platform. Zero rotation is defined as Y on flow board pointing towards front of vehicle

SENS_BOARD_Y_OFF Board rotation Y (Pitch) offset 0.0

This parameter defines a rotational offset in degrees around the Y (Pitch) axis. It allows the user to fine tune the board offset in the event of misalignment.

SENS_BOARD_X_OFF Board rotation X (Roll) offset 0.0

This parameter defines a rotational offset in degrees around the X (Roll) axis It allows the user to fine tune the board offset in the event of misalignment.

SENS_BOARD_Z_OFF Board rotation Z (YAW) offset 0.0

This parameter defines a rotational offset in degrees around the Z (Yaw) axis. It allows the user to fine tune the board offset in the event of misalignment.

SENS_EXT_MAG_ROT External magnetometer rotation 0
SENS_EXT_MAG Select primary magnetometer 0 2 0

Sensor Enable

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
SENS_EN_LL40LS Lidar-Lite (LL40LS) PWM 0
SENS_EN_SF0X Lightware SF0x laser rangefinder 0

Snapdragon UART ESC

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
UART_ESC_MODEL ESC model 2

See esc_model_t enum definition in uart_esc_dev.h for all supported ESC model enum values.

UART_ESC_BAUD ESC UART baud rate 250000

Default rate is 250Kbps, whic is used in off-the-shelf QRP ESC products.

UART_ESC_MOTOR1 Motor 1 Mapping 4
UART_ESC_MOTOR2 Motor 2 Mapping 2
UART_ESC_MOTOR3 Motor 3 Mapping 1
UART_ESC_MOTOR4 Motor 4 Mapping 3

Subscriber Example

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
SUB_INTERV Interval of one subscriber in the example in ms 100
SUB_TESTF Float Demonstration Parameter in the Example 3.14

System

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
LED_RGB_MAXBRT RGB Led brightness limit 0 15 15

Set to 0 to disable, 1 for minimum brightness up to 15 (max)

SYS_AUTOSTART Auto-start script index 0 99999 0

CHANGING THIS VALUE REQUIRES A RESTART. Defines the auto-start script used to bootstrap the system.

SYS_AUTOCONFIG Automatically configure default values 0 1 0

Set to 1 to reset parameters on next system startup (setting defaults). Platform-specific values are used if available. RC* parameters are preserved.

SYS_USE_IO Set usage of IO board 0 1 1

Can be used to use a standard startup script but with a FMU only set-up. Set to 0 to force the FMU only set-up.

SYS_RESTART_TYPE Set restart type 0 2 2

Set by px4io to indicate type of restart

SYS_MC_EST_GROUP Set multicopter estimator group 0 2 0

Set the group of estimators used for multicopters and vtols

SYS_COMPANION TELEM2 as companion computer link 0 1921600 157600

CHANGING THIS VALUE REQUIRES A RESTART. Configures the baud rate of the TELEM2 connector as companion computer interface.

SYS_PARAM_VER Parameter version 0 1

This monotonically increasing number encodes the parameter compatibility set. whenever it increases parameters might not be backwards compatible and ground control stations should suggest a fresh configuration.

SYS_LOGGER SD logger 0 1 0

Testing

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
TEST_MIN -1.0
TEST_MAX 1.0
TEST_TRIM 0.5
TEST_HP 10.0
TEST_LP 10.0
TEST_P 0.2
TEST_I 0.1
TEST_I_MAX 1.0
TEST_D 0.01
TEST_D_LP 10.0
TEST_MEAN 1.0
TEST_DEV 2.0
TEST_PARAMS 12345678

UAVCAN

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
UAVCAN_ENABLE UAVCAN mode 0 3 0

0 - UAVCAN disabled. 1 - Enabled support for UAVCAN actuators and sensors. 2 - Enabled support for dynamic node ID allocation and firmware update. 3 - Sets the motor control outputs to UAVCAN and enables support for dynamic node ID allocation and firmware update.

UAVCAN_NODE_ID UAVCAN Node ID 1 125 1

Read the specs at http://uavcan.org to learn more about Node ID.

UAVCAN_BITRATE UAVCAN CAN bus bitrate 20000 1000000 1000000

VTOL Attitude Control

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
VT_TRANS_THR Target throttle value for pusher/puller motor during the transition to fw mode 0.0 1.0 0.6
VT_DWN_PITCH_MAX Maximum allowed down-pitch the controller is able to demand. This prevents large, negative lift values being created when facing strong winds. The vehicle will use the pusher motor to accelerate forward if necessary 0.0 45.0 5.0
VT_FWD_THRUST_SC Fixed wing thrust scale for hover forward flight 0.0 2.0 0.0

Scale applied to fixed wing thrust being used as source for forward acceleration in multirotor mode. This technique can be used to avoid the plane having to pitch down a lot in order to move forward. Setting this value to 0 (default) will disable this strategy.

VT_FW_MIN_ALT QuadChute 0.0 200.0 0.0

Minimum altitude for fixed wing flight, when in fixed wing the altitude drops below this altitude the vehicle will transition back to MC mode and enter failsafe RTL

VT_TILT_MC Position of tilt servo in mc mode 0.0 1.0 0.0
VT_TILT_TRANS Position of tilt servo in transition mode 0.0 1.0 0.3
VT_TILT_FW Position of tilt servo in fw mode 0.0 1.0 1.0
VT_TRANS_P2_DUR Duration of front transition phase 2 0.1 5.0 0.5

Time in seconds it should take for the rotors to rotate forward completely from the point when the plane has picked up enough airspeed and is ready to go into fixed wind mode.

VT_FW_MOT_OFFID The channel number of motors that must be turned off in fixed wing mode 0 12345678 0
VT_MOT_COUNT VTOL number of engines 0 8 0
VT_IDLE_PWM_MC Idle speed of VTOL when in multicopter mode 900 2000 900
VT_MC_ARSPD_MIN Minimum airspeed in multicopter mode 0.0 30.0 10.0

This is the minimum speed of the air flowing over the control surfaces.

VT_MC_ARSPD_MAX Maximum airspeed in multicopter mode 0.0 30.0 30.0

This is the maximum speed of the air flowing over the control surfaces.

VT_MC_ARSPD_TRIM Trim airspeed when in multicopter mode 0.0 30.0 10.0

This is the airflow over the control surfaces for which no airspeed scaling is applied in multicopter mode.

VT_FW_PERM_STAB Permanent stabilization in fw mode 0

If set to one this parameter will cause permanent attitude stabilization in fw mode. This parameter has been introduced for pure convenience sake.

VT_FW_PITCH_TRIM Fixed wing pitch trim -1.0 1.0 0.0

This parameter allows to adjust the neutral elevon position in fixed wing mode.

VT_POWER_MAX Motor max power 1 10000 120.0

Indicates the maximum power the motor is able to produce. Used to calculate propeller efficiency map.

VT_PROP_EFF Propeller efficiency parameter 0.0 1.0 0.0

Influences propeller efficiency at different power settings. Should be tuned beforehand.

VT_ARSP_LP_GAIN Total airspeed estimate low-pass filter gain 0.0 1.0 0.3

Gain for tuning the low-pass filter for the total airspeed estimate

VT_TYPE VTOL Type (Tailsitter=0, Tiltrotor=1, Standard=2) 0 2 0
VT_ELEV_MC_LOCK Lock elevons in multicopter mode 0

If set to 1 the elevons are locked in multicopter mode

VT_F_TRANS_DUR Duration of a front transition 0.00 10.00 3.0

Time in seconds used for a transition

VT_B_TRANS_DUR Duration of a back transition 0.00 10.00 2.0

Time in seconds used for a back transition

VT_ARSP_BLEND Transition blending airspeed 0.00 30.00 8.0

Airspeed at which we can start blending both fw and mc controls. Set to 0 to disable.

VT_ARSP_TRANS Transition airspeed 0.00 30.00 10.0

Airspeed at which we can switch to fw mode

VT_OPT_RECOV_EN Optimal recovery strategy for pitch-weak tailsitters 0
VT_WV_YAWR_SCL Weather-vane yaw rate scale 0.0 1.0 0.15

The desired yawrate from the controller will be scaled in order to avoid yaw fighting against the wind.

VT_TRANS_TIMEOUT Front transition timeout 0.00 30.00 15.0

Time in seconds after which transition will be cancelled. Disabled if set to 0.

VT_TRANS_MIN_TM Front transition minimum time 0.0 10.0 2.0

Minimum time in seconds for front transition.

VT_NAV_FORCE_VT Force VTOL mode takeoff and land 0 1 1

mTECS

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
MT_ENABLED mTECS enabled 0
MT_THR_FF Total Energy Rate Control Feedforward Maps the total energy rate setpoint to the throttle setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.7
MT_THR_P Total Energy Rate Control P Maps the total energy rate error to the throttle setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.1
MT_THR_I Total Energy Rate Control I Maps the integrated total energy rate to the throttle setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.25
MT_THR_OFF Total Energy Rate Control Offset (Cruise throttle sp) 0.0 10.0 0.7
MT_PIT_FF Energy Distribution Rate Control Feedforward Maps the energy distribution rate setpoint to the pitch setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.4
MT_PIT_P Energy Distribution Rate Control P Maps the energy distribution rate error to the pitch setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.03
MT_PIT_I Energy Distribution Rate Control I Maps the integrated energy distribution rate error to the pitch setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.03
MT_PIT_OFF Total Energy Distribution Offset (Cruise pitch sp) 0.0 10.0 0.0
MT_THR_MIN Minimal Throttle Setpoint 0.0 1.0 0.0
MT_THR_MAX Maximal Throttle Setpoint 0.0 1.0 1.0
MT_PIT_MIN Minimal Pitch Setpoint in Degrees -90.0 90.0 -45.0
MT_PIT_MAX Maximal Pitch Setpoint in Degrees -90.0 90.0 20.0
MT_ALT_LP Lowpass (cutoff freq.) for altitude 1.0
MT_FPA_LP Lowpass (cutoff freq.) for the flight path angle 1.0
MT_FPA_P P gain for the altitude control Maps the altitude error to the flight path angle setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.3
MT_FPA_D D gain for the altitude control Maps the change of altitude error to the flight path angle setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.0
MT_FPA_D_LP Lowpass for FPA error derivative calculation (see MT_FPA_D) 1.0
MT_FPA_MIN Minimal flight path angle setpoint -90.0 90.0 -20.0
MT_FPA_MAX Maximal flight path angle setpoint -90.0 90.0 30.0
MT_A_LP Lowpass (cutoff freq.) for airspeed 0.5
MT_AD_LP Airspeed derivative calculation lowpass 0.5
MT_ACC_P P gain for the airspeed control Maps the airspeed error to the acceleration setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.3
MT_ACC_D D gain for the airspeed control Maps the change of airspeed error to the acceleration setpoint 0.0 10.0 0.0
MT_ACC_D_LP Lowpass for ACC error derivative calculation (see MT_ACC_D) 0.5
MT_ACC_MIN Minimal acceleration (air) -40.0
MT_ACC_MAX Maximal acceleration (air) 40.0
MT_TKF_THR_MIN Minimal throttle during takeoff 0.0 1.0 1.0
MT_TKF_THR_MAX Maximal throttle during takeoff 0.0 1.0 1.0
MT_TKF_PIT_MIN Minimal pitch during takeoff -90.0 90.0 0.0
MT_TKF_PIT_MAX Maximal pitch during takeoff -90.0 90.0 45.0
MT_USP_THR_MIN Minimal throttle in underspeed mode 0.0 1.0 1.0
MT_USP_THR_MAX Maximal throttle in underspeed mode 0.0 1.0 1.0
MT_USP_PIT_MIN Minimal pitch in underspeed mode -90.0 90.0 -45.0
MT_USP_PIT_MAX Maximal pitch in underspeed mode -90.0 90.0 0.0
MT_LND_THR_MIN Minimal throttle in landing mode (only last phase of landing) 0.0 1.0 0.0
MT_LND_THR_MAX Maximal throttle in landing mode (only last phase of landing) 0.0 1.0 0.0
MT_LND_PIT_MIN Minimal pitch in landing mode -90.0 90.0 -5.0
MT_LND_PIT_MAX Maximal pitch in landing mode -90.0 90.0 15.0
MT_THR_I_MAX Integrator Limit for Total Energy Rate Control 0.0 10.0 10.0
MT_PIT_I_MAX Integrator Limit for Energy Distribution Rate Control 0.0 10.0 10.0

Miscellaneous

Name Description Min Max Default
Comment
EXFW_HDNG_P 0.1
EXFW_ROLL_P 0.2
EXFW_PITCH_P 0.2
RV_YAW_P 0.1
COM_FLTMODE1 First flightmode slot (1000-1160) -1

If the main switch channel is in this range the selected flight mode will be applied.

COM_FLTMODE2 Second flightmode slot (1160-1320) -1

If the main switch channel is in this range the selected flight mode will be applied.

COM_FLTMODE3 Third flightmode slot (1320-1480) -1

If the main switch channel is in this range the selected flight mode will be applied.

COM_FLTMODE4 Fourth flightmode slot (1480-1640) -1

If the main switch channel is in this range the selected flight mode will be applied.

COM_FLTMODE5 Fifth flightmode slot (1640-1800) -1

If the main switch channel is in this range the selected flight mode will be applied.

COM_FLTMODE6 Sixth flightmode slot (1800-2000) -1

If the main switch channel is in this range the selected flight mode will be applied.

SEG_TH2V_P 10.0
SEG_TH2V_I 0.0
SEG_TH2V_I_MAX 0.0
SEG_Q2V 1.0
RC_MAP_FAILSAFE Failsafe channel mapping 0 18 0

The RC mapping index indicates which channel is used for failsafe If 0, whichever channel is mapped to throttle is used otherwise the value indicates the specific rc channel to use

MAV_TYPE 2
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